Skin permeability enhancement by low frequency sonophoresis: lipid extraction and transport pathways.

@article{AlvarezRomn2003SkinPE,
  title={Skin permeability enhancement by low frequency sonophoresis: lipid extraction and transport pathways.},
  author={Roc{\'i}o Alvarez-Rom{\'a}n and Gustavo Merino and Yogeshvar N Kalia and Aarti C. Naik and Richard Guy},
  journal={Journal of pharmaceutical sciences},
  year={2003},
  volume={92 6},
  pages={1138-46}
}
The objective of this study was to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which low-frequency ultrasound (20 KHz) enhances the permeability of the skin. The physical effects on the barrier and the transport pathway, in particular, were examined. The amount of lipid removed from the intercellular domains of the stratum corneum following sonophoresis was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Transport of the fluorescent probes nile red and calcein, under the influence of ultrasound, was evaluated by… CONTINUE READING