Skin Necrosis Following Adipocitolitic Solution Injections.

  title={Skin Necrosis Following Adipocitolitic Solution Injections.},
  author={Giuseppe Di Toro and Raffaele Rauso},
  journal={Aesthetic surgery journal},
  volume={36 2},
Injectable fat-reduction techniques emerged in the world literature in 2001, when Patricia Rittes, a dermatologist in Sao Paulo, Brazil, reported reduction of infraorbital fat after direct, transcutaneous injection of phosphatidylcholine (PC) combined with sodium deoxycholate (DC) solution.1 Despite lack of approval by any regulatory body, PC/DC combinations have been used off-label by healthcare practitioners to reduce subcutaneous fat in selected patients.2,3 In Europe, the only drug with CE marking (approval) for the reduction of localized fat is Aqualyx (Marllor International; San Giovanni in Marignano, Italy).4 Currently, it is approved in approximately 50 countries. [] Key Method
2 Citations

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Chronic Infection and Nodule Formation following Deoxycholate Injection
This case demonstrates the importance of appropriate training and competence in performing cosmetic procedures including injections and fat dissolving treatments and was administered too superficially in the case of Aqualyx.
Comments on: “Intralipotherapy, the State of the Art”
  • R. Rauso
  • Medicine
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open
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The use of DC alone to reduce localized adipos-ity can be very damaging, inducing skin necrosis in some cases; however, a recent study stated that ATX-101 injections, in a 4-year follow-up study, were a safe and predictable mini-invasive procedure for nonsurgical reduction of submental fullness.


A CE-Marked Drug Used for Localized Adiposity Reduction: A 4-Year Experience.
Results demonstrate that this CE-marked agent appears to be effective and safe for medical treatment of fat reduction, and for patients who desire touchups for liposuction-induced irregularities.
Evaluation of a new adipocytolytic solution: adverse effects and their relationship with the number of vials injected.
The aim of this study for which 331 therapeutic sessions were retrospectively analyzed is to provide evidence of the safety and efficacy of adipocytolytic solution.
Refinement of technique in injection lipolysis based on scientific studies and clinical evaluation.
An adipocitolitic aqueous micro-gelatinous solution for buffalo hump deformity reduction.
This case describes a longer follow up of an already published study were this deformity was treated with the injection of an adipocitolitic aqueous micro-gelatinous solution and during all the follow up no relapse was observed.
The Use of Phosphatidylcholine for Correction of Lower Lid Bulging Due to Prominent Fat Pads
  • P. Rittes
  • Medicine
    Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • 2001
The injection of phosphatidylcholine (250 mg/5 ml) into the fat pads is a simple office procedure that may postpone or even substitute for lower eyelid blepharoplasty.
Comments on "Injection lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate".
In a previous letter to the editor, Hasengschwandtner and Gundermann1 raised the question of sodium deoxycholate's (DC) unselective action when injected subcutaneously during nonsurgical, localized
Detergent Effects of Sodium Deoxycholate Are a Major Feature of an Injectable Phosphatidylcholine Formulation Used for Localized Fat Dissolution
The phosphatidylcholine formula popularly used in subcutaneous injections for fat dissolution works primarily as a detergent causing nonspecific lysis of cell membranes, suggesting a role in eliminating unwanted adipose tissue.
Injectable treatments for adipose tissue: Terminology, mechanism, and tissue interaction
  • A. Rotunda
  • Medicine, Biology
    Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • 2009
Just as injectable fillers have addressed the need for non‐surgical methods to restore desired volume, a number of injectable therapies purpor to play a comparable role to reduce undesired volume.
Response to "Injection lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate".
  • V. Young
  • Medicine
    Aesthetic surgery journal
  • 2013
This commentary is written to caution surgeons not to overinterpret the results mentioned in the original Reeds et al1 study and assume that the results offer proof that injection lipolysis using drugs from compounding pharmacies is safe and efficacious.