Skim reading by satisficing: evidence from eye tracking

@article{Duggan2011SkimRB,
  title={Skim reading by satisficing: evidence from eye tracking},
  author={Geoffrey B. Duggan and Stephen J. Payne},
  journal={Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  year={2011}
}
  • G. Duggan, S. Payne
  • Published 7 May 2011
  • Computer Science
  • Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Readers on the Web often skim through text to cope with the volume of available information. [] Key Result A greater understanding of the way that text is read on the Web would assist many producers of online content.

Figures and Tables from this paper

Spotlights: Attention-Optimised Highlights for Skim Reading
TLDR
A novel design rule informed by theories of the human visual system for dynamically selecting objects and placing them on transparent overlays on top of the viewer is presented, which improves the quality of visual processing at high scrolling rates.
Spotlights: Attention-Optimized Highlights for Skim Reading
TLDR
A novel design rule informed by theories of the human visual system for dynamically selecting objects and placing them on transparent overlays on top of the viewer is presented, which improves the quality of visual processing at high scrolling rates.
Analysis of Skim Reading on Desktop versus Mobile Screen
TLDR
It is found that, relative to reading the text on a mobile screen, skimming showed improved memory for the ideas defined in thetext on a computer screen, which has been interpreted as evidence in support of a skimming process called satisficing.
Skim-reading Strategies in Sighted and Visually-Impaired Individuals: A Comparative Study
TLDR
This paper identified key features of visual documents that allow sighted users to adopt a highly flexible and goal-oriented approach to skim-reading, and proposed a list of six design implications to guide the development of future technologies assisting non-visual skimming.
Reading detection in real-time
TLDR
A new method for reading detection using Region Ranking SVM (RRSVM) is introduced, which learns the local oculomotor features that are important for real-time reading detection while it is optimizing for the global reading/skimming classification, making it unnecessary to hand-label local fixation windows for model training.
Skimming and Scrutinizing: Quantifying Two Basic Patterns of Visual Behavior in Design
TLDR
An algorithm is introduced that, based on numerical criteria, allows an automated detection of both skimming and scrutinizing sequences in eye tracking data.
The effect of audio-support on strategy, time, and performance on reading comprehension in secondary school students with dyslexia.
TLDR
Analysis of reading comprehension strategies, reading times, and reading comprehension performance in secondary school students with dyslexia and typically developing controls found audio-support increased reading time in students with and without Dyslexia in most tasks, while in neither of the tasks audio- support affected reading comprehensionperformance.
Spotlights: Facilitating Skim Reading with Attention-Optimized Highlights
TLDR
Spotlights is a technique to facilitate skim reading, or the activity of rapidly comprehending long documents such as webpages or PDFs, that facilitates visual attention by decreasing the number of objects competing for divided attention and ensuring sufficient processing time per object.
One page of text: Eye movements during regular and thorough reading, skimming, and spell checking
Eye movements during regular reading, thorough reading, skimming, and spell checking of single pages of text were measured, to investigate how high-level reading tasks elicited by instructions affect
Oculomotor and Linguistic Processing Effects in Reading Dynamic Horizontally Scrolling Text
TLDR
An analysis of global oculomotor behavior across the 2 experiments showed that participants made fewer and longer fixations when reading scrolling text, with shorter progressive and regressive saccades between these fixations.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Text skimming: the process and effectiveness of foraging through text under time pressure.
  • G. Duggan, S. Payne
  • Education, Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Applied
  • 2009
TLDR
3 experiments that use expository texts and allow readers only enough time to read half of each document found that, relative to reading half the text, skimming improved memory for important ideas from a text but did not improve memory of less important details or of inferences made from information within the text.
The effects of reading speed and reading patterns on the understanding of text read from screen
With increasing use of the World Wide Web, rapid scanning or skimming of material on screen has become a frequent activity. However, the outcome of this method of reading has not been thoroughly
Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research.
  • K. Rayner
  • Psychology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1998
TLDR
The basic theme of the review is that eye movement data reflect moment-to-moment cognitive processes in the various tasks examined.
Cognitive Processes in Skimming Stories
Abstract : This research investigated comprehension processes and memory representations involved in skimming stories. Experiments 1 and 2 used a timed recognition test to study the formation of
Allocating Time Across Multiple Texts: Sampling and Satisficing
TLDR
Two studies investigating readers' ability to allocate limited time adaptively across online texts of varying difficulty showed that participants were adaptive in how they allocated their time in that more knowledgeable readers spent more time reading more difficult texts.
Reading behavior in the digital environment: Changes in reading behavior over the past ten years
TLDR
With an increasing amount of time spent reading electronic documents, a screen‐based reading behavior is emerging, characterized by more time spent on browsing and scanning, keyword spotting, one‐time reading, non‐linear reading, and reading more selectively, while less time is spent on in‐depthReading, and concentrated reading.
Rauding Theory Predictions of Amount Comprehended Under Different Purposes and Speed Reading Conditions.
RAUDING THEORY makes precise predictions about the amount of passage comprehension; the accuracy of these predictions was investigated under different purpose conditions and differing rates of
Reading Strategies and Hypertext Comprehension
TLDR
This article explores a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext, and discusses the theoretical and methodological consequences of this approach for the study of hypertext comprehension.
Tuning and testing scrolling interfaces that automatically zoom
TLDR
Speed dependent automatic zooming is a promising refinement to scrolling in which documents are automatically zoomed-out as the scroll rate increases, and human factors of the speed/zoom relationship are scrutinised in order to aid SDAZ calibration.
Interleaving reading and acting while following procedural instructions.
TLDR
The authors concluded that the interleaving of reading and acting is an important practical concern in the design of interactive procedures and that more effective chunk-based strategies can quite readily be encouraged.
...
...