Skeletal muscle fibers count on nuclear numbers for growth.

  title={Skeletal muscle fibers count on nuclear numbers for growth.},
  author={Vikram Prasad and Douglas P. Millay},
  journal={Seminars in cell \& developmental biology},
Skeletal muscle cells are noteworthy for their syncytial nature, with each myofiber accumulating hundreds or thousands of nuclei derived from resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). These nuclei are accrued through cell fusion, which is controlled by the two essential fusogens Myomaker and Myomerger that are transiently expressed within the myogenic lineage. While the absolute requirement of fusion for muscle development has been known for decades, the underlying need for the magnitude of… 
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Fusion and beyond: Satellite cell contributions to loading‐induced skeletal muscle adaptation
This review highlights the current understanding of satellite cell behavior and contributions to adaptation outside of regeneration in adult muscle, as well as the roles of satellite cells beyond fusion and myonuclear accretion, which are gaining broader recognition.
Extraordinarily rapid proliferation of cultured muscle satellite cells from migratory birds
The results indicate that the rapid proliferation of satellite cells is not associated with total migration distance but may be related to flight bout duration and interact with lifespan.
Resistance Training Recommendations to Maximize Muscle Hypertrophy in an Athletic Population: Position Stand of the IUSCA
Hypertrophy can be operationally defined as an increase in the axial cross-sectional area of a muscle fiber or whole muscle, and is due to increases in the size of pre-existing muscle fibers.


Nuclear numbers in syncytial muscle fibers promote size but limit the development of larger myonuclear domains
It is proposed that as myonuclear numbers increase, the range of transcriptional return on a per nuclear basis in myofibers diminishes, which accounts for both the absolute reliance developing my ofibers have on nuclear accrual to establish size, and the limits of adaptability in adult skeletal muscle.
Single-nucleus RNA-seq identifies transcriptional heterogeneity in multinucleated skeletal myofibers
It is revealed that myonuclei within syncytial muscle fibers possess distinct transcriptional profiles that regulate muscle biology, and genes associated with rare specialized regions of the muscle cell are discovered.
Myogenin is an essential regulator of adult myofibre growth and muscle stem cell homeostasis
Beyond controlling myocyte fusion, Myog influences the MuSC:niche relationship, demonstrating a multi-level contribution to muscle homeostasis throughout life.
Myonuclear domains in muscle adaptation and disease
Data demonstrate that modulation of myonuclear number or myonnuclear domain size is a mechanism contributing to the remodeling of adult skeletal muscle in response to alterations in the level of normal neuromuscular activity.
Myogenin promotes myocyte fusion to balance fibre number and size
It is reported that loss of function of zebrafish myog prevents formation of almost all multinucleated muscle fibres and enhances Myomaker expression, muscle cell fusion and myotome size, yet decreases fast muscle fibre number.
Satellite cell depletion prevents fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscle
It is discussed that there is currently no model in which functional, sustainable hypertrophy has been unequivocally demonstrated in the absence of satellite cells; an exception is re-growth, which can occur using previously recruited myonuclei without addition of new myon nuclei.
Nuclear Scaling Is Coordinated among Individual Nuclei in Multinucleated Muscle Fibers.
This study presents the first comprehensive approach to unraveling the intrinsic regulation of size in multinucleated muscle fibers and finds that individual nuclei within a myofiber establish different local scaling relationships by adjusting their size and synthetic activity in correlation with positional or spatial cues.
Single-nucleus transcriptomics reveals functional compartmentalization in syncytial skeletal muscle cells
Investigating nuclear heterogeneity and transcriptional dynamics in the uninjured and regenerating muscle using single-nucleus RNA-sequencing of isolated nuclei from muscle fibers revealed distinct nuclear subtypes unrelated to fiber type diversity, previously unknown subtypes as well as the expected ones at the neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions.
Myonuclear content regulates cell size with similar scaling properties in mice and humans
Scaling exponents are remarkably similar across species, developmental stages and experimental conditions, suggesting an underlying scaling law where DNA-content functions as a limiter of muscle cell size.
Nuclear positioning in skeletal muscle.
  • W. Roman, E. Gomes
  • Biology, Medicine
    Seminars in cell & developmental biology
  • 2018
The step by step nuclear migrations during myogenesis for nuclei to reach their evenly distributed anchored position at the periphery of the myofiber are reviewed.