Skeletal muscle apoptosis, sarcopenia and frailty at old age

  title={Skeletal muscle apoptosis, sarcopenia and frailty at old age},
  author={Emanuele Marzetti and Christiaan Leeuwenburgh},
  journal={Experimental Gerontology},

Multiple Pathways to the Same End: Mechanisms of Myonuclear Apoptosis in Sarcopenia of Aging

Further research is required to better define the involvement of myocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of muscle loss at advanced age, which will likely help in the design of more effective therapeutic strategies to preserve muscle mass into old age, thus fostering independence of the elderly population and reducing the socioeconomic burden associated with sarcopenia.

One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia

Sarcopenia may represent a unique phenotypic feature of aging that requires specific and individually tailored therapeutic strategies to halt or reverse the progression of sarcopenia.

Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy

Current knowledge on the mechanisms whereby mitochondrial dysfunction intervenes in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and disuse atrophy are summarized, and the prospect of targeting specific processes to treat these conditions is highlighted.

Sarcopenia of aging: Underlying cellular mechanisms and protection by calorie restriction

Preliminary evidence indicates that moderate CR may promote muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in middle‐aged human subjects, and further research is warranted to investigate whether CR may represent a safe and efficient strategy to delay the onset and mitigate the progression of sarcopenia in older adults.

PGC-1α and Myokines in the Aging Muscle – A Mini-Review

Current discoveries about the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α), a key exercise factor in muscle, and myokines, factors produced and secreted by active muscle fibers, expand the view of the pathological changes and the therapeutic options for sarcopenia.

Potential mechanisms underlying the role of chronic inflammation in age-related muscle wasting

An evidence-based review serves to examine sarcopenia from a mechanistic perspective with emphasis on chronic inflammation, as the co-existence of such adverse alterations in body composition may exacerbate systemic inflammation and muscle wasting in the elderly.

Sarcopenia – Molecular mechanisms and open questions

Models of accelerated sarcopenia: Critical pieces for solving the puzzle of age-related muscle atrophy




Sarcopenia and its implications for the elderly

  • R. Roubenoff
  • Medicine
    European journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2000
A public health approach to prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, based on increasing physical activity at all ages, will be crucial to avoiding an epidemic of disability in the future.

Apoptosis in skeletal muscle with aging.

  • A. DirksC. Leeuwenburgh
  • Biology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2002
In vitro experiments demonstrated that activation of the caspase cascade in skeletal muscle might be limited by procaspase-9 activation and suggests that subtle changes in apoptosis are involved in sarcopenia.

Exercise training attenuates age-induced changes in apoptotic signaling in rat skeletal muscle.

The results indicate that treadmill exercise training attenuates fiber atrophy and pro-apoptotic signaling in aging skeletal muscle.

The Role of Apoptosis in the Normal Aging Brain, Skeletal Muscle, and Heart

The results demonstrate that a tissue‐specific adaptation of the Bcl‐2/Bax ratio occurs with age and may directly influence the release of cytochrome c.

Aging of the human neuromuscular system

It is encouraging that the capability of physiological adaptations in the motor pathways remains into very old age — when an appropriate exercise stimulus is given — and long‐term prevention strategies are advocated to avoid excessive physical impairments and activity restrictions in this age group.

Contributions of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and apoptosis to human skeletal muscle wasting with age

A preferential role for apoptosis is indicated contributing to decreases in muscle function with age, as well as muscle strength, which was significantly lower in old compared to young subjects.

Age-related differences in apoptosis with disuse atrophy in soleus muscle.

Results show that deregulation of myonuclear number occurs in old skeletal muscle and that the pathways involved in apoptosis are distinct in young and old muscles.

Muscle fiber‐specific apoptosis and TNF‐α signaling in sarcopenia are attenuated by life‐long calorie restriction

  • T. PhillipsC. Leeuwenburgh
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2005
TNF‐α signals transmitted to specific fiber types determine the decision of selecting life or death signaling pathways and are linked to the extent of fiber loss experienced in the aging muscle, suggesting a major proponent in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia.

Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico.

Some of the first estimates of the extent of the public health problem posed by sarcopenia are provided, independent of ethnicity, age, morbidity, obesity, income, and health behaviors.