Skeletal changes associated with vascular malformations.


Five hundred and eighty birthmarks were reviewed; 356 were hemangiomas and 224 were malformations. Bony alterations occurred in association with only 1 percent of hemangiomas, in contrast with 34 percent of patients with vascular malformations. These alterations in bone development were classified according to size, shape, and density changes. Hypertrophy and distortion were typical of lymphatic malformations. Hypoplasia and demineralization were characteristic findings in the extremity venous malformations. Destructive and intraosseous changes were more commonly noted in the arterial or high-flow lesions. Possible mechanisms of altered skeletal growth include mechanical, physiological, and developmental processes.

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@article{Boyd1984SkeletalCA, title={Skeletal changes associated with vascular malformations.}, author={Jennifer B Boyd and John Butler Mulliken and Leonard B. Kaban and Joseph Upton and Jessica Murray}, journal={Plastic and reconstructive surgery}, year={1984}, volume={74 6}, pages={789-97} }