Size-dependent predation risk and partner quality in predator inspection of sticklebacks

  title={Size-dependent predation risk and partner quality in predator inspection of sticklebacks},
  author={David K{\"u}lling and Manfred Milinski},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
Predator inspection behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus): body size, local predation pressure and cooperation
It is confirmed that levels of predator inspection are both population- and situation-dependent, suggesting a trade-off in the potential costs and benefits of this behaviour.
The response of juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) with different dominance ranks towards a potential predator and a nonthreatening novel stimulus was studied when in a group, to assess the
Cooperation under predation risk: experiments on costs and benefits
Two fish that cooperatively inspect a predator may have negotiated the share of the risk that each takes. A test of both the costs of predator inspection dependent on the distance from which the
Size-assorted fish shoals and the majority's choice
  • N. Peuhkuri
  • Psychology
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 1999
Despite the frequency-dependent nature of the oddity effect, varying the number of odd individuals in the non-matching shoal did not have a significant effect on individual's shoaling decisions, suggesting that size-assortativeness in fish shoals is not a result of individuals avoiding being among the majority in a mixed group.
Who dares, benefits: predator approach behaviour in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) deters predator pursuit
  • J. Godin, S. A. Davis
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1995
This work demonstrates experimentally that the predators were significantly less attentative to, and less likely to attack and kill, guppies which inspected them than those which did not, and incurred a significantly lower risk of attack and death than non-inspectors when approached by the predator.
Behavioral types as predictors of survival in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
Fitness effects of the correlated behaviors that made up a consistent behavioral syndrome in a population of Trinidadian guppies were measured and it was found that more active, bold, and exploratory individuals survived longer when exposed to a predator.
Social structure and co-operative interactions in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
Female guppies showed social preferences for stable partners, fulfilling a key assumption made by models of reciprocity, and the occurrence of highly interconnected social networks between stable partners suggests the existence of co-operation networks in free-ranging populations of the guppy.
Body size and shoaling in fish
Fish shoals provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the functions and mechanisms of group living, and future studies should aim to take an integrated view of individual behaviours, group size and phenotypic composition when investigating group choice decisions.
Fish recognize and prefer to shoal with poor competitors
  • N. Metcalfe, B. C. Thomson
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1995
It is shown for the first time that fish (European minnows) can discriminate between shoals composed of good and of poor competitors, which may explain the paradox of animals rapidly distribution themselves between foraging groups according to the predictions of the Ideal Free Distribution.


Dicing with death: predator inspection behaviour in minnow shoals
Individual minnows which have carried out an inspection visit to the predator model exhibit changes in behaviour on return which are contingent upon the state of the model, demonstrating that information is gained.
Provenance, shoal size and the sociobiology of predator-evasion behaviour in minnow shoals
  • A. Magurran, T. Pitcher
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1987
Mnows from provenances with and without pike exhibited a similar repertoire of antipredator behaviour patterns, but those sympatric with the predator integrated their tactics more effectively and regained pre-exposure behaviour sooner after each encounter.
The adaptive significance of schooling as an anti-predator defense in fish
Schooling may not be an equally appropriate defence against all predators and the phylogenetic origins of populations or species can lead to additional genetic constraints, so behavioural ecologists will increasingly focus on how interactions between such con straints govern the evolution of behaviour.
Schooling mackerel and herring choose neighbours of similar size
These experiments, covering sizes which coexist in the wild, are the first demonstration of the neighbour size choice in fish schools predicted by theories of hydrodynamic advantage.
TIT FOR TAT in sticklebacks and the evolution of cooperation
Using a system of mirrors, single three-spined sticklebacks approaching a live predator were provided with either a simulated cooperating companion or a simulated defecting one supporting the hypothesis that cooperation can evolve among egoists.
Predator model recognition and response habituation in shoaling minnows
Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat
It is shown that food sharing by regurgitation of blood among wild vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) depends equally and independently on degree of relatedness and an index of opportunity for recipro cation.
The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism
  • R. Trivers
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1971
A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the
Reciprocity and the Trade-Off Between Associate Quality and Relatedness
  • S. Wasser
  • Economics
    The American Naturalist
  • 1982
The inclusive fitness gains that individuals receive from associating with one another depend on their (1) relatedness, and (2) abilities to provide one another with aid which I term their associate
No pure strategy is evolutionarily stable in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game
It is argued that no pure strategy can be evolutionarily stable in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game, which casts doubt on several of Axelrod's conclusions about the evolution of reciprocity.