Size and Scaling in Human Evolution

  title={Size and Scaling in Human Evolution},
  author={David R. Pilbeam and S. Gould},
  pages={892 - 901}
Our general conclusion is simply stated: many lineages display phyletic size increase; allometric changes almost always accompany increase in body size. We cannot judge adaptation until we separate such changes into those required by increasing size and those serving as special adaptations to changing environments. In our view, the three australopithecines are, in a number of features, scaled variants of the "same" animal. In these characters, A. africanus is no more "advanced" than the larger… 

Fossils and the mosaic nature of human evolution

These new fossils, dates, analyses, and interpretations lead to confirmation and refinement of the mosaic scheme of human evolution as proposed by early evolutionists such as Lamarck, Haeckel, and

Body Size and Skeletal Allometry in African Apes

Morphological analyses of the teeth and locomotor skeletons of pongids and humans also corroborate the Ferris et al. branching sequence, and a variety of shared, unique features of the karyotypes of African apes lend strong credence to this phylogeny.

THE PATTERN OF HUMAN EVOLUTION: Studies on Bipedalism, Mastication, and Encephalization

The recent and sudden proliferation of hominid fossil discoveries sparks new interest in human evolution, especially in the early part of the story. In the last decade the sample of

The Origin of the Genus Homo

The first good evidence of early Homo shows that the first members of the species H. erectus were very like the authors' own species in many respects, including large people with sexual dimorphism in body size to match that of modern human populations, relatively large brains, and had modern limb proportions that show physiological adaptations according to Allen’s rule.

Body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo

It is shown that two independent methods of body-mass estimation yield concordant results when applied to Pleistocene Homo specimens, and on the basis of an analysis of 163 individuals, body mass in Pleistsocene Homo averaged significantly (about 10%) larger than a representative sample of living humans.

Start Small and Live Slow: Encephalization, Body Size, and Life History Strategies in Primate Origins and Evolution

It is argued here that it is an understanding of early primate brain evolution, which primates represent the most diverse mammalian order generally characterized by such high levels of encephalization, which is needed to understand their origins and early evolution.


  • R. Corruccini
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1978
Hinoid morphology and proportions are seen as having developed from parallel increase in body size and necessarily associated allometry, suggesting that more than one kind of locomotor pattern could have given rise to their distinctive shape.

Morphometric analysis of the distal humerus of some Cenozoic Catarrhines: the Late Divergence Hypothesis revisited.

  • M. Feldesman
  • Geography
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1982
The results of this study fail to resolve the central question of whether the last common ancestor of the African apes and humans "knuckle-walked" and it is suggested here that this may be an unresolvable problem.

Conservatism and Adaptability during Squirrel Radiation: What Is Mandible Shape Telling Us?

The results found a strong phylogenetic signal in the family as a whole as well as in the main clades, which indicates that ancient adaptations kept a prominent role, with most genera having diverged little from their ancestral clade morphologies.

Dental Evidence for the Diet of Australopithecus

  • R. Kay
  • Environmental Science
  • 1985
Explaining human structure in functional and adaptive terms and constructing a picture of behavioral changes in the course of human evolution are among the goals of evolutionary studies. Over the




  • N. D. Newell
  • Geology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1949
In reviewing the history of any group of animals one is impressed by the fact that the largest known representatives are usually geologically younger than their smaller relatives, and individual size commonly averages smaller when a group first appears than at any subsequent stage in its history.

The seed-eaters : a new model of hominid differentiation based on a baboon analogy

Despite years of theorising, and a rapidly accumulating body of fossil evidence, physical anthropology still lacks a convincing causal model of hominid origins. Diverse lines of evidence point to a

A New Species of The Genus Homo From Olduvai Gorge

The new material found in 1963 makes it possible to draw conclusions and to give a diagnosis for a new species of the genus Homo, as shown in this article.


  • S. Stanley
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1973
Most modern interpreters of Cope's Rule have attributed its validity solely to certain fundamental advantages of size increase, at least one of which is alleged to have operated within most evolutionary lineages.

Paleoecology of South African Australopithecines: Taung Revisited

The Taung hominid may postdate the arrival of true Homo in southern Africa, opening up a new range of problems concerning the phylogeny and ecological adaptations of the australopithecines.

Structural adaptation in two Permian brachiopod genera, Salt Range, West Pakistan

Silicified shells with spines preserved allow analysis of spine distribution as a specific character in the genus Marginifera Waagen and confirm validity of Waagen9s (1884) six species. The animal

A Comparison Between the Olduvai Hominines and those of Java and some Implications for Hominid Phylogeny

these lines. The Lake Chad craniofacial fragment, provisionally described by M. Yves Coppens in 1962, as an australopithecine, is not, we are convinced, a member of this sub-family. We understand

Sanctimus (Mammalia, Rodentia) and the phyletic relationships of the large Arikareean geomyoids

Sanctimus, represented by three species from the Sharps and Monroe Creek formations of western South Dakota, is similar in size and most dental structures to Florentiamys, a group of large geomyoids,

Inventory of remains of Hominidae from Pliocene-Pleistocene formations of the lower Omo basin, Ethiopia (1967-1972).

The remains—inventoried here according to skeletal part, locality and stratigraphic level, age and situation—include numerous isolated and associated teeth, mandibles, partial maxillae, portions of crania, and elements of the postcranial skeleton.


The Pennsylvanian tetrapods of Linton, Ohio and the Hapolepidae, a new family of late Carboniferous bony fishes, are studied in a study in tax and evolution.