Six decades of the Hall–Petch effect – a survey of grain-size strengthening studies on pure metals

@article{Cordero2016SixDO,
  title={Six decades of the Hall–Petch effect – a survey of grain-size strengthening studies on pure metals},
  author={Zachary C. Cordero and Bryon Edward Knight and Christopher A. Schuh},
  journal={International Materials Reviews},
  year={2016},
  volume={61},
  pages={495 - 512}
}
Refining a metal’s grain size can result in dramatic increases in strength, and the magnitude of this strengthening increment can be estimated using the Hall–Petch equation. Since the Hall–Petch equation was proposed, there have been many experimental studies supporting its applicability to pure metals, intermetallics and multi-phase alloys. In this article, we gather the grain-size strengthening data from the Hall–Petch studies on pure metals and use this aggregated data to calculate best… 
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The strongest size
The well known break-down of the Hall–Petch effect of the rise of the plastic resistance with decreasing grain size in polycrystalline metals, when the grain size drops into the nanometre range
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