Nr. 2. Dr. H. Verbiest (Neurosurgical Clinic of the University Utrecht, Holland): Neurosurgical Treatment of Tuberculous Meningitis. 24 children with tube~'culous meningStis have been surgically breated: 2 children at the onset of the disease, the others only after several months for symptoms of increased intraeranial pressure, or because of failure of the usual antibiotic-or chemotherapy, In all cases hydrocephalus was found. Permanent drainage of the ventricles has been employed not only in the cases with acute hydrocephalus, but in every case in which hypertensive hydrocephalus has been found. This melhod gave as a rule symptomatic improvement, while normalization of the intracranial pressure relations occurred only in correspondence with the improvement of the disease. There were no indications that ventricular drainage promoted blocking of the basal cisternae. Streptomycin was applied by the intramuscular and intralumbar route, and through intraventricular and intracisternal drains. 10 Patients are still alive, from which 7 being 9--15 months after the operation. 9 Patients had previously been treated unsuccessfully by intramuscular and intrathecal medication. Early neuros~rgical treatment is needed until more powerful antibiotics will be at our disposal. Some contraindications to operative treahnent are discussed.