Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity

  title={Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity},
  author={A. David Nussbaum and Claude M. Steele},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Social Psychology},
Research suggests that the experience of belonging to a group whose academic abilities are negatively stereotyped fosters disidentification over time, that is, the psychological insulation of the self from academic evaluations and outcomes (Crocker, Major, & Steele, 1998). This research tests whether the process of disidentification can ironically improve motivation when mobilized in response to specific situations. Black and White participants were given negative feedback on an ability… Expand
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Support is presented for the Motivational Experience Model of ST, a self-regulatory model framework for integrating research on ST, achievement goals, sense of belonging, and intrinsic motivation to make predictions for how stigmatized students’ motivational experiences are maintained or disrupted, particularly over long periods of time. Expand
Identity Separation in Response to Stereotype Threat
Despite widespread evidence for the performance costs of stereotype threat, little research has examined other psychological consequences, such as disengagement or disidentification. The presentExpand
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It is revealed that students may temporarily disengage their self-esteem from performance feedback through discounting, but are less inclined to devalue the academic domain when faced with negative feedback in a particular situation because of their motivational orientations. Expand
Stereotype Threat.
This review explores the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotypethreat. Expand
Psychological disengagement as a silent response to perceived (present and future) sex-based disadvantage among female office workers
Abstract Introduction Reactions to perceived disadvantage can be of the silent type: individuals may psychologically disengage their self-esteem from a domain such as work, by discounting theExpand
Contending With Stereotype Threat at Work: A Model of Long-Term Responses 1Ψ7
Women and people of color are still underrepresented in many occupational roles. Being in a situation where one is underrepresented, and thus in the demographic minority, has been shown to be aExpand
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A persistent puzzle emerges from a review of the psychological research literature on how people defend the self from potentially threatening information and events: People can be adamantlyExpand
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Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: how self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat.
To the extent that stereotype and identity threat undermine academic performance, social psychological interventions that lessen threat could buffer threatened students and improve performance, two studies examined whether a values affirmation writing exercise could attenuate the achievement gap between Latino American and European American students. Expand


Coping with Negative Stereotypes about Intellectual Performance: The Role of Psychological Disengagement
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that members of negatively stereotyped groups psychologically disengage their self-esteem from feedback received in stereotype-relevant domains. In bothExpand
Coping With Ethnic Stereotypes in the Academic Domain: Perceived Injustice and Psychological Disengagement
Psychological disengagement is the defensive detachment of self-esteem from a particular domain. In the academic arena, disengagement can result from devaluing academic success or discounting theExpand
Coping with stigma through psychological disengagement.
Publisher Summary This chapter highlights the significance of social stigma and the negative effects it has on individuals in any culture and society. A number of popular theories of self-esteemExpand
A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.
  • C. Steele
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American psychologist
  • 1997
Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups, that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects. Expand
Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat
Our research on stereotype threat began with a practical question: Do social psychological processes play a significant role in the academic underperformance of certain minority groups, and if so,Expand
Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed and mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. Expand
Academics, Self-Esteem, and Race: A Look at the Underlying Assumptions of the Disidentification Hypothesis
Theorists have argued that global self-esteem should be related to performance in academics. However, studies have reported lower academic achievement among African American students than among WhiteExpand
Contingencies of self-worth in college students: theory and measurement.
In confirmatory factor analyses on data from 1,418 college students, a 7-factor model fit to the data acceptably well and significantly better than several plausible alternative models. Expand
Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?
  • J. Osborne
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Contemporary educational psychology
  • 2001
Examination of whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors provided general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Expand
Control of Attributions about the Self Through Self-handicapping Strategies: The Appeal of Alcohol and the Role of Underachievement
Explores the hypothesis that alcohol use and underachievement may serve as strategies to externalize the causation of poor performance and to internalize the causation of good performance. Such aExpand