Sitosterol-β-glucoside as Primer for Cellulose Synthesis in Plants

  title={Sitosterol-$\beta$-glucoside as Primer for Cellulose Synthesis in Plants},
  author={Liangcai Peng and Y. Kawagoe and Pat Hogan and D. Delmer},
  pages={147 - 150}
Cellulose synthesis in plants requires β-1,4-glucan chain initiation, elongation, and termination. The process of chain elongation is likely to be distinct from the process of chain initiation. We demonstrate that a CesA glucosyltransferase initiates glucan polymerization by using sitosterol-β-glucoside (SG) as primer. Cotton fiber membranes synthesize sitosterol-cellodextrins (SCDs) from SG and uridine 5′-diphosphate–glucose (UDP-Glc) under conditions that also favor cellulose synthesis. The… Expand
Formation of glucosylceramide and sterol glucoside by a UDP‐glucose‐dependent glucosylceramide synthase from cotton expressed in Pichia pastoris
The synthesis of GlcCer in the transformed double mutant shows that the G CS is SG‐independent, while the detection of SG suggests that in addition to the sterol glucosyltransferase, also the GCS may contribute in planta to SG biosynthesis. Expand
Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation
This chapter highlights recent research progress towards understanding the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis by using a combination of molecular genetics, live cell imaging, and spectroscopic tools. Expand
Towards the mechanism of cellulose synthesis.
Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in cellulose production are defective in genes encoding membrane-bound glycosyltransferases, an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase and several enzymes involved in the N-glycosylation and quality-control pathways of the endoplasmic reticulum. Expand
Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells
This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family and various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins that have been involved in cellulOSE biosynthesis. Expand
Cellulose synthases and synthesis in Arabidopsis.
The identified tentative interaction partners for the CesAs and shown that the migratory patterns of the CesA complexes depend on phosphorylation status may become good platforms for expanding the knowledge about cellulose synthesis in the near future. Expand
The Cellulase KORRIGAN Is Part of the Cellulose Synthase Complex1[W]
A multidisciplinary approach was used, including live cell imaging, gel filtration chromatography analysis, split ubiquitin assays in yeast, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, to show that KOR1 is an integral part of the primary cell wall CSC in the plasma membrane, which suggests a role for Kor1 both in the synthesis of cellulose microfibrils and in the intracellular trafficking of CSCs. Expand
Prime Time for Cellulose
Plants cannot survive without cellulose, the primary constituent of their cell walls. Although some of the subunits composing the rosette-shaped cellulose synthase--the enzyme complex thatExpand
Functional reconstitution of cellulose synthase in Escherichia coli.
It is shown that cellulose-synthesizing activity is successfully reconstituted in Escherichia coli by expressing the bacterial cellulose synthase complex of Gluconacetobacter xylinus: CesA and CesB (formerly BcsA and BcsB, respectively). Expand
The lipid origin of cellulose.
  • W. Peters
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Trends in cell biology
  • 2002
It is concluded that SG formed from sitosterol and UDP-glucose acts as a primer for glucan chain production, and provides a role also for the korrigan cellulase, which has been implicated in cellulose synthesis. Expand
Biochemical control of xylan biosynthesis - which end is up?
Knowledge of xylan biosynthesis may provide tools to modify secondary cell wall structure and thereby improve the bioprocessing characteristics of biomass. Expand


Unusual β-D-Xylosides That Prime Glycosaminoglycans in Animal Cells*
Interestingly, benzyl-β-D-threo-pentopyranos-4-uloside (4-keto derivative) and benzyl -4-methyl- β- D-xyloside, with a methyl group in place of an axial hydrogen at C-4, primed GAG chains, which suggests the possibility of designing inhibitors of GAG synthesis based on xylosides with reactive groups in key positions. Expand
In vitro synthesis of a microfibrillar (1→3)-β-glucan by a ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) endosperm (1→3)-β-glucan synthase enriched by product entrapment
The product-entrapped enzyme preparation contains six major polypeptides, and comparison of the SDS—PAGE pattern of this fraction with thepolypeptide profile of an immunoprecipitated (1→3)-β-glucan synthase preparation suggests that polypePTides at 30–31 and 55–58 kDa are the most likely candidates for participation in (1–3)- β- glucan synthesis. Expand
The experimental herbicide CGA 325'615 inhibits synthesis of crystalline cellulose and causes accumulation of non-crystalline beta-1,4-glucan associated with CesA protein.
Developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cultured in vitro with their associated ovules, were used to compare the effects of two herbicides that inhibit cellulose synthesis:Expand
Parallel-up structure evidences the molecular directionality during biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose.
The "parallel-up" packing in cellulose Ialpha and Ibeta unit cells was experimentally demonstrated by a combination of direct-staining the reducing ends of cellulose chains andExpand
CELLULOSE BIOSYNTHESIS: Exciting Times for A Difficult Field of Study.
  • D. Delmer
  • Chemistry, Biology
  • Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology
  • 1999
Genetic evidence now supports the concept that members of this family encode the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase in these organisms, with various members showing tissue-specific expression. Expand
Isolation and structure of diglycosylsterols and triglycosylsterols in rice bran
Abstract Novel oligoglycosylsterols, a series of sterylglycosides, were detected in the glycolipids of rice bran, and di- and triglycosylsterols were isolated and their structures were investigated.Expand
Chitin oligosaccharide synthesis by rhizobia and zebrafish embryos starts by glycosyl transfer to O4 of the reducing-terminal residue.
The results indicate that prenylpyrophosphate-linked intermediates are not involved in the chitin oligosaccharide synthesis pathway, and shows that the use of artificial glycosyl acceptors such as pNPGlcNAc has not previously been described for a processiveglycosyltransferase. Expand
Role of the putative membrane-bound endo-1,4-beta-glucanase KORRIGAN in cell elongation and cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
It is demonstrated that the product of this gene is required for cellulose synthesis, which encodes a putative membrane-bound endo-1,4-beta-glucanase in KORRIGAN. Expand
PROCUSTE1 Encodes a Cellulose Synthase Required for Normal Cell Elongation Specifically in Roots and Dark-Grown Hypocotyls of Arabidopsis
Mutants at the PROCUSTE1 (PRC1) locus show decreased cell elongation, specifically in roots and dark-grown hypocotyls, suggesting that cellulose synthesis in these organs requires the coordinated expression of at least two distinct cellulose synthase isoforms. Expand
Molecular Directionality of Polysaccharide Polymerization by thePasteurella multocida Hyaluronan Synthase*
  • P. Deangelis
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • 1999
It is shown here that a HA synthase, PmHAS, from Gram-negative P. multocida bacteria polymerizes the HA chain by the addition of sugar units to the nonreducing terminus, and the fidelity of the individual sugar transfer reactions is sufficient to generate the authentic repeating structure of HA. Expand