Site-Specific Ribose Methylation of Preribosomal RNA: A Novel Function for Small Nucleolar RNAs

  title={Site-Specific Ribose Methylation of Preribosomal RNA: A Novel Function for Small Nucleolar RNAs},
  author={Zsuzsanna Kiss-L{\'a}szl{\'o} and Yves Henry and Jean Pierre Bachellerie and Mich{\`e}le Caizergues-Ferrer and Tam{\'a}s Kiss},

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Small nucleolar RNAs: versatile trans-acting molecules of ancient evolutionary origin.
The recent discovery that homologs of snoRNAs as well as associated proteins exist in the domain Archaea indicates that the RNA-guided RNA modification system is of ancient evolutionary origin.
Functional diversity of small nucleolar RNAs
The new and unforeseen roles attributed to snoRNAs are discussed, including high resolution RNA:protein and RNA:RNA interaction mapping, techniques for analyzing modifications on targeted RNAs, and cellular and animal models used in snoRNA biology research.
Structure and biogenesis of small nucleolar RNAs acting as guides for ribosomal RNA modification.
Information is reviewed about the biogenesis, structure and function of guide snoRNAs, which function as guides directing site-specific 2'-O-ribose methylation or pseudouridine formation in eukaryotic cells.
A small nucleolar RNA requirement for site-specific ribose methylation of rRNA in Xenopus.
Two novel human snoRNA species are characterized, U62 and U63, which similarly exhibit 15- (with one interruption) and 12-nt complementarities and are therefore predicted to direct 2'-O-methylation of A590 in 18S and A4531 in 28S rRNA, respectively.
Function and synthesis of small nucleolar RNAs.
Small nucleolar RNAs and RNA-guided post-transcriptional modification.
Recent advances in understanding of snoRNAs are focused on, likely they were a feature of the last common ancestor of these two domains, placing their origin over two billion years ago.
Small nucleolar RNAs
A large number of snoRNAs, particularly in yeast, are generated from independent transcription units and are required for cleavage processing of ribosomal RNA precursors and for the 2′-O-ribose methylation of at least one spliceosomal small nuclear RNA.
A small nucleolar RNP protein is required for pseudouridylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs
It is demonstrated that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gar1 snoRNP protein plays an essential and specific role in the overall pseudouridylation of yeast rRNAs and indicates that the box H/ACA snoRNAs, or at least a subset of these sno RNAs, function in the site‐specific pseudoursouridolation of r RNAs.


The small nucleolar RNAs.
The present review summarizes key progress made in characterizing the small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) of eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have shown snoRNA populations to be substantially more complex
Requirement for intron-encoded U22 small nucleolar RNA in 18S ribosomal RNA maturation.
The nucleoli of vertebrate cells contain a number of small RNAs that are generated by the processing of intron fragments of protein-coding gene transcripts, and these results identify a cellular function for an intron-encoded small RNA.
U14 base-pairs with 18S rRNA: a novel snoRNA interaction required for rRNA processing.
U14 is one of several snoRNAs with long complementarities to rRNA and the first snoRNA in this class shown to interact directly with rRNA.
Functional requirement of a site-specific ribose methylation in ribosomal RNA.
The purified Pet56 protein catalyzed the site-specific formation of 2'-O-methylguanosine on in vitro transcripts of both mitochondrial 21S rRNA and Escherichia coli 23S r RNA, providing evidence for an essential modified nucleotide in rRNA.
Characterization of the intron-encoded U19 RNA, a new mammalian small nucleolar RNA that is not associated with fibrillarin
During fractionation of HeLa cell nucleolar extracts on glycerol gradients, U19 RNA was associated with higher-order structures of approximately 65S, cosedimenting with complexes containing 7-2/MRP RNA, a conserved nucleolar RNA shown to be involved in 5.8S rRNA processing in yeast cells.
A small nucleolar RNA is processed from an intron of the human gene encoding ribosomal protein S3.
A human small nucleolar RNA, identified previously in HeLa cells by anti-fibrillarin autoantibody precipitation and termed RNA X, has been characterized and comprises two uridine-rich variants, which are referred to as snRNA U15A and U15B.
Small nucleolar RNAs encoded by introns of the human cell cycle regulatory gene RCC1.
In HeLa cell S‐100 extract, U17 RNA is faithfully excised from a longer RNA transcript derived from the intron yielding 5′‐monophosphorylated RNA, suggesting that U17 RNAs are not independently transcribed but are processed out of the RCC1 pre‐mRNA or out ofThe spliced introns.
A novel small nucleolar RNA (U16) is encoded inside a ribosomal protein intron and originates by processing of the pre‐mRNA.
The presence of a snoRNA inside an intron of the L1 ribosomal protein gene and the phylogenetic conservation of this gene arrangement suggest an important regulatory/functional link between these two components.