Evanescent-field-induced second harmonic generation by noncentrosymmetric nanoparticles.
A new scheme for integrated optical fluorescence sensing is presented. The principle is based on a planar waveguide containing multiple sensing units, each consisting of a single-pad grating coupler structure. Single-pad means that all the following functions are incorporated in one single pad: laser light input, excitation of the labeled analyte molecules, efficient collection of the emitted fluorescent light into the waveguide, background suppression, and coupling the guided wave out to the detector. The results demonstrate a high efficiency of the fluorescence light excitation and collection, as well as a good suppression of the volume background.