Single origin of Malagasy Carnivora from an African ancestor

  title={Single origin of Malagasy Carnivora from an African ancestor},
  author={Anne D. Yoder and Melissa M. Burns and Sarah M. Zehr and Thomas Delefosse and G{\'e}raldine Veron and Steven M. Goodman and John J. Flynn},
The Carnivora are one of only four orders of terrestrial mammals living in Madagascar today. All four (carnivorans, primates, rodents and lipotyphlan insectivores) are placental mammals with limited means for dispersal, yet they occur on a large island that has been surrounded by a formidable oceanic barrier for at least 88 million years, predating the age of origin for any of these groups. Even so, as many as four colonizations of Madagascar have been proposed for the Carnivora alone. The… 

Asynchronous colonization of Madagascar by the four endemic clades of primates, tenrecs, carnivores, and rodents as inferred from nuclear genes.

A simultaneous reconstruction of phylogeny and age of the four radiations based on a 3.5-kb data set from three nuclear genes supports each as a monophyletic clade, sister to African taxa, and thereby identifies four events of colonization out of Africa.

Ancient DNA from giant extinct lemurs confirms single origin of Malagasy primates.

An ancient DNA analysis of subfossil species from the extinct genera Palaeopropithecus and Megaladapis corroborates the monophyly of endemic Malagasy primates and supports the close relationship of sloth lemurs to living indriids as has been hypothesized on morphological grounds.

Aspects of carnivoran evolution in Africa

The pattern that emerges in this study is that the species of Viverridae and Herpestidae do not generally overlap in ecomorphology where they overlap geographically, which indicates considerable competitive interactions between the families in both Africa and Eurasia.

Historical Biogeography of the Strepsirhine Primates of Madagascar

  • I. Tattersall
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Folia Primatologica
  • 2006
The palaeogeographic evidence for potential land bridge or ‘stepping-stone’ connections with adjacent continents from the Mesozoic through the Cenozoic is examined, and the fossil records and phylogenies of each of Madagascar's mammalian groups are reviewed in an attempt to estimate the minimum number of crossings necessary to produce the island’s current faunal composition.

Origin of Madagascar's extant fauna: A perspective from amphibians, reptiles and other non‐flying vertebrates

Analysis of phylogenetic patterns of some taxa provides indications for a scenario in which the ancestors of the Malagasy clades first arrived by transmarine dispersal from Africa at theMalagasy west coast, and in a second step a subset of them underwent species‐rich radiations into the rainforests.

Two New Species of Mouse Lemurs (Cheirogaleidae: Microcebus) from Eastern Madagascar

A recent genetic analysis of mtDNA and nDNA sequence data in Malagasy mouse lemurs revealed the existence of several novel mtDNA clades based on new field sampling, and confirmed their evolutionary divergence from other mouse lemur clades, formally describing them as new species.

Introduction to Carnivora

Carnivora range in diet from pure carnivores to species that specialise on fruit, leaves, and insects, as well as the full spectrum of mixed diets; carnivorans are represented by omnivorous bears, frugivorous raccoons, and even insectivorous hyaenas.

Arrival and diversification of caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates in South America.

Considering both the fossil record and these molecular datings, the favored scenarios are a trans-Atlantic migration of primates from Africa at the end of the Eocene or beginning of the Oligocene, and a colonization of South America by rodents during the Middle or Late Eocene.



Ancient single origin for Malagasy primates.

It is concluded that primate origins were marked by rapid speciation and diversification sometime before the late Paleocene, and called for a revision of primate classifications in which the dwarf and mouse lemurs are placed within the Afro-Asian lorisiforms.

Origins, Diversity and Relationships of Lemurs

  • R. Martin
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    International Journal of Primatology
  • 2004
Overall, it now seems that primates originated at around 90 Ma rather than the 55 Ma indicated by direct reading of the known fossil record, and colonization of Madagascar by lemurs would have taken place at about 80 Ma, double the date usually accepted, and should be interpreted in terms of contemporary continental relationships.

The Natural History of Madagascar

Separated from the mainland of Africa for 160 million years, Madagascar has evolved an incredible wealth of biodiversity, with thousands of species that can be found nowhere else on earth. For

Phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): congruence vs incompatibility among multiple data sets.

Conditional data combination analyses of the four independent data sets indicate that the phylogenetic results derived from each generally agree, with two exceptions, and demonstrates that while a CDC method may reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity for a particular partition, including that partition in combined analyses, may nevertheless provide an overall increase in phylogenetic signal.

Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal

Support for a phylogeny and area cladogram that does not fit a simple vicariant history for chameleons is shown, using molecular and morphological evidence for 52 chameleon taxa.

Molecular estimates of primate divergences and new hypotheses for primate dispersal and the origin of modern humans.

Estimates of primate divergence times suggest a new hypothesis, which accommodates the strikingly similar coalescence times for human mitochondrial DNA and the Y-chromosome, that the divergence between strepsirhines and anthropoids was contemporary with the break-up of Southern continents about 90 MYBP.

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Native Rodents of Madagascar (Muridae: Nesomyinae): A Test of the Single‐Origin Hypothesis

The phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that rodents invaded Madagascar only once, they came from Asia not from Africa as is commonly assumed, and there was a secondary invasion of rodents from Madagascar into Africa.

Natural change and human impact in Madagascar

A miniature continent long isolated from the African mainland, the island of Madagascar evolved a biota that remains one of the most varied of any environment in the world. Following the arrival of

Adaptive radiation and behaviour of the Malagasy lemurs.

  • R. D. Martín
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1972
It is suggested that the Malagasy lemurs and the Afro-Asian bush-babies and lorises had a common origin in Africa (lemur/loris stock), and that this ancestral stock had an earlier common origin with the Adapinae and Notharctinae of the Northern continents.

Implications of recent geological investigations of the Mozambique Channel for the mammalian colonization of Madagascar

  • Robert Mccall
  • Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1997
Madagascar separated from continental Africa during the break–up of Gondwanaland early in the Cretaceous. The presence of several terrestrial mammalian groups on Madagascar is paradoxical as (i)