Continuous identification of common polymorphisms in various genes helps us to understand the possible association between endometrial cancer risk and the germline polymorphism. Estrogen receptor genes and the group of genes associated with the metabolism of estrogen have been investigated well. Second, the polymorphism in the p53 gene and the genes involved in its downstream pathway were correlated to a risk of developing endometrial cancer. Finally, the polymorphism in the genes involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulating cell cycles, and DNA-damage repair were studied. In this way, recent research has begun to identify common genetic polymorphisms that augment the effects of risk-factor exposure, such as genes that affect the metabolism of hormones or are involved in cellular anti-tumor activities. The accumulation of data through these approaches would make genetic testing for the risk of development of endometrial cancer possible in the near future.