INTRODUCTION Chylous mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. The treatment is the complete removal of the cyst PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 49-year-old female presented with abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 5.0-cm-diameter intraabdominal, homogenous cystic lesion located on the mesentery of the small intestine. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed for complete resection. DISCUSSION Only a handful of cases of laparoscopic surgery for a mesenteric cyst have been reported, and no reports have been published regarding single-incision laparoscopic surgery for a mesenteric cyst. CONCLUSION We report the first known case of a chylous mesenteric cyst that was successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic surgery.