Single-electron current sources: towards a refined definition of ampere

  title={Single-electron current sources: towards a refined definition of ampere},
  author={Jukka P. Pekola and O.-P. Saira and Ville F Maisi and Antti Kemppinen and Mikko Mottonen and Yu A Pashkin and Dmitri V. Averin},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
Controlling electrons at the level of elementary charge $e$ has been demonstrated experimentally already in the 1980's. Ever since, producing an electrical current $ef$, or its integer multiple, at a drive frequency $f$ has been in a focus of research for metrological purposes. In this review we first discuss the generic physical phenomena and technical constraints that influence charge transport. We then present the broad variety of proposed realizations. Some of them have already proven… Expand
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