Single Term Off-Line Coins

@inproceedings{Ferguson1993SingleTO,
  title={Single Term Off-Line Coins},
  author={Niels Ferguson},
  booktitle={EUROCRYPT},
  year={1993}
}
We present a new construction for off-line electronic coins that is both far more efficient and much simpler than previous systems. Instead of using many terms, each for a single bit of the challenge, our system uses a single term for a large number of possible challenges. The withdrawal protocol does not use a cutand-choose methodology as with earlier systems, but uses a direct construction. 
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Towards provably secure

Matthew Franklin, Moti Yung
Personal communications, • 1992

Making electronic refunds safer

Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman
Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO ’ 92 ,

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