BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The introduction of robotic surgery offers patients and surgeons new options for adrenalectomy. Whereas multiport adrenalectomies have been safely performed using the robot, we describe our experience with the novel technique of single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy. METHODS We performed a matched-cohort study comparing 16 single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomies with 16 patients from a pool of 148 laparoscopic adrenalectomies, matched for age, gender, operative side, pathology, and body mass index. All were operated on by 1 surgeon. RESULTS The pathology included aldosteronoma in 44% of patients, adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing syndrome (bilateral adrenalectomy) in 19%, pheochromocytoma in 13%, and other pathology in 24%. The operative time was 183 ± 33 minutes for single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy and 173 ± 40 minutes for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (P = .58). The total time in the operating room was 246 ± 33 minutes for single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy and 240 ± 39 minutes for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (P = .57). There was 1 conversion to open adrenalectomy (6%) in each group, both because of bleeding on the right side during bilateral adrenalectomy. Two right-sided single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy patients required conversion to laparoscopic adrenalectomy, one because of poor visualization. There were no deaths. Complications occurred in 2 patients in each group (intensive care unit admission, prolonged ileus). Both groups had similar pain scores (mean of 3.7 on a scale from 1 to 10) on postoperative day 1, and patients in the single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy group used less narcotic pain medication in the first 24 hours after surgery (43 mg vs 84 mg in laparoscopic adrenalectomy group, P < .001). The differences between the single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy group and laparoscopic adrenalectomy group in length of stay (2.3 ± 0.5 days vs 3.1 ± 0.9 days, P = .23), percentage of patients discharged on postoperative day 1 (56% vs 31%, P = .10), and hospital cost (16% lower in single-port robotic-assisted adrenalectomy group, P = .17) did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION Single-port robotic adrenalectomy is feasible; patients require less narcotic pain medication whereas costs appear equivalent compared with laparoscopic adrenalectomy.