Simultaneous phenanthrene and cadmium removal from contaminated soil by a ligand/biosurfactant solution

Abstract

Surfactants and inorganic ligands are pointed as efficient to simultaneous removal of heavy metals and hydrophobic organic pollutants from soil. However, the biosurfactants are potentially less toxic to soil organisms than other chemical agents. Thus, in this study the efficiency of combinations of iodide (I−) ligand and surfactants produced by different… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10532-011-9459-z

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