After a decade of rapid development, simultaneous pancreas--kidney (SPK) transplantation has become routine at the University of Wisconsin (UW). Since developing the concept of direct drainage of pancreas allograft exocrine secretions into the urinary bladder at UW in 1982, we performed 381 SPK transplantations in this technique. Patient and graft survival following SPK transplantation has increased significantly from our early experience to the recent time. The one- and five-year patient survival rates for the entire series of 381 SPK transplantations were 96% and 88% respectively. The actuarial one- and five-year kidney allograft survival rates in these patients were 87% and 78%. The pancreas allograft survival rates were similar at 86% and 74%. Several changes are responsible for our current high level of success. UW preservation solution, improved surgical technique, advances in immunosuppression, and expeditious diagnosis and treatment of complications.