Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) provides three-dimensional high-isotropic-resolution retinal images in vivo. We developed AO-OCT with a 1.03-mum probing beam and demonstrated high-penetration, high-resolution retinal imaging. Axial scans are acquired with a speed of 47,000 lines/s. AO closed loop is configured with a single deformable mirror. Seven eyes of 7 normal subjects were examined. Signal enhancement was found for all subjects. A rippled interface between nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer, boundary between ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer, and chorioscleral interface were identified. Simultaneous high-resolution and high-penetration choroidal imaging may be useful for microstructural investigation of photoreceptors and glaucomatous nerve-fiber abnormalities.