An assay using a single-tube, 1-step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was established for the simultaneous detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Three primer sets, 9195 F/9992 R, 94 F2/R2, and ITS F/28S R, were mixed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to amplify specific fragments of the TSV, WSSV, and Penaeus vannamei genome, respectively, in the RT-PCR reaction. Shrimp samples were experimentally infected with WSSV and TSV. PCR-amplified products detected in the nucleic acid extraction of shrimp pleopods produced 4 kinds of results. With no virus infection, 1 fragment of 892 base pairs (bp) was amplified from a ribosomal RNA gene by primer set ITS F/28S R as an internal control. In samples only infected by WSSV or TSV, 2 fragments could be seen: either from WSSV (530 bp) plus the internal control or TSV (231 bp) plus the internal control, respectively. In cases of co-infection with both viruses, all 3 amplified products were detected simultaneously. This study is the first report of Penaeus vannamei specimens co-infected with WSSV and TSV being detected using a PCR method via experimental infection.