Simultaneous Extraction of Urea and Glucose by Reverse Iontophoresis in Vivo

@article{Sieg2004SimultaneousEO,
  title={Simultaneous Extraction of Urea and Glucose by Reverse Iontophoresis in Vivo},
  author={Anke Sieg and Richard Guy and M. Begox00F1a Delgado-Charro},
  journal={Pharmaceutical Research},
  year={2004},
  volume={21},
  pages={1805-1810}
}
Purpose. Reverse iontophoresis extracts glucose across the skin in the GlucoWatch Biographer, a device to monitor glycemia in diabetes. However, the device must first be calibrated with an invasive “finger-stick” and this has been perceived as a disadvantage. Here, urea, a neutral “internal standard” is extracted simultaneously in an attempt to render the technique completely non-invasive. Methods. In a 5-h experiment in human volunteers, reverse iontophoretic fluxes of glucose and urea (Jglu… CONTINUE READING

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