Simulation of head-first impact using cervical spine specimens , simulated neck muscles , and a Hybrid III ATD head

Neck muscles stiffen and stabilize the cervical spine; however, their influence during ex vivo axial impact experiments has previously only been examined for highly simplified musculature. The objective of this study was to create a model of head-first impact with simulation of several major neck muscles, using a Hybrid III ATD head and cadaver cervical… (More)