Simulation and modeling-an improved VCO macromodel

  title={Simulation and modeling-an improved VCO macromodel},
  author={W. E. Thain and J R Connelly},
  journal={IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine},
A SPICE macromodel for a phase-locked loop (PLL) featuring design simplicity and a reduced simulation time which was introduced by M. Sitkowski (1991) is reviewed. Two of the primary simplifications in this PLL macromodel were the utilization of a voltage-controlled tuned circuit as the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) that does not require feedback to produce an oscillating output, and the use of a nonlinear voltage-controlled voltage source as part of a limiter/comparator that converts the… CONTINUE READING