Simulating dynamical features of escape panic

  title={Simulating dynamical features of escape panic},
  author={Dirk Helbing and Ill{\'e}s J. Farkas and Tam{\'a}s Vicsek},
One of the most disastrous forms of collective human behaviour is the kind of crowd stampede induced by panic, often leading to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Sometimes this behaviour is triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires in crowded buildings; at other times, stampedes can arise during the rush for seats or seemingly without cause. Although engineers are finding ways to alleviate the scale of such disasters, their frequency seems to be increasing with the… 

Crowd Disasters and Simulation of Panic Situations

Simulation of pedestrian behavior can give valuable insights into the mechanisms and preconditions of panic, jamming, and the observed ‘faster-is-slower effect’, and an optimal strategy for collective problem solving in crisis situations is identified corresponding to a suitable mixture of individuahstic and herding behavior.

Consequence of Turning Movements in Pedestrian Crowds during Emergency Egress

Collective egress comes into play during emergencies such as natural disasters or terrorist attacks, when rapid egress is essential for escape. An important aspect of collective egress under

Crowd dynamics under emergency conditions: using non-human organisms in the development of a pedestrian crowd model

The rapid movement of large numbers of people is critical in emergency and/or panic situations, such as during the evacuation of buildings, stadiums, theatres, and public transport stations; outdoor

Simulation of pedestrian crowds in normal and evacuation situations

Starting with a short review of the available literature in the field of pedestrian and evacuation research, an overview is given over the observed collective phenomena in pedestrian crowds. This

Panic That Spreads Sociobehavioral Contagion in Pedestrian Evacuations

Crowds are a part of everyday public life, from stadiums and arenas to school hallways. Occasionally, pushing within the crowd spontaneously escalates to crushing behavior, resulting in injuries and

Human collective reactions to threat.

  • G. Dezecache
  • Psychology
    Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science
  • 2015
These are important results in that they show that human individual and collective reactions to threat are primarily affiliative, and far from leading to the breakdown of the social fabrics, the presence of a common threat can strengthen social bonds.

Fear propagation and the evacuation dynamics




Collective behavior in a simulated panic situation

Panic at “The Who Concert Stampede”: An Empirical Assessment

I report evidence showing that panic did not cause the death and injury of numerous young people prior to a concert by the rock group, The Who, at Cincinnati's Riverfront Coliseum in late 1979. An

Social force model for pedestrian dynamics.

  • HelbingMolnár
  • Physics
    Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics
  • 1995
It is suggested that the motion of pedestrians can be described as if they would be subject to ``social forces.'' These ``forces'' are not directly exerted by the pedestrians' personal environment,

A Model for Simulating Human Behavior During Emergency Evacuation Based on Classificatory Reasoning and Certainty Value Handling

The model is experimentally applied to examine the behavior which masses of people take in an underground structure under an emergency condition caused by an earthquake, and the results obtained confirm that the model is able to simulate correctly the principal human behavior enacted in an emergency evacuation.

Football stadia disasters in the United Kingdom: learning from tragedy?

The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of sports stadia disasters involving British fans since 1971. While each of the four incidents described (Ibrox 1971, Bradford 1985, Heysel 1985,

Novel type of phase transition in a system of self-driven particles.

Numerical evidence is presented that this model results in a kinetic phase transition from no transport to finite net transport through spontaneous symmetry breaking of the rotational symmetry.

Social psychology.

Within the context of psychology, social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.[1]

The Handbook of Social Psychology

VOLUME 2. Part III: The Social World. 21. EVOLUTIONARY SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (Steven L. Neuberg, Douglas T. Kenrick, and Mark Schaller). 22. MORALITY (Jonathan Haidt and Selin Kesebir). 23. AGGRESSION

Freezing by heating in a driven mesoscopic system

We investigate a simple model corresponding to particles driven in opposite directions and interacting via a repulsive potential. The particles move off-lattice on a periodic strip and are subject to

Handbook of Social Psychology

later consideration of social cultural realities, Stereotypes and Myths, would have fallen into an easy sequence. The author's present arrangement may lead the student into some confusion of thought