Simple ears - flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

  title={Simple ears - flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway},
  author={Gerit Pfuhl and Blanka Kalinov{\'a} and Irena Valterov{\'a} and Bente G. Berg},
  journal={Current Zoology},
Lepidoptera evolved tympanic ears in response to echolocating bats. Comparative studies have shown that moth ears evolved many times independently from chordotonal organs. With only 1 to 4 receptor cells, they are one of the simplest hearing organs. The small number of receptors does not imply simplicity, neither in behavior nor in the neural circuit. Behaviorally, the response to ultrasound is far from being a simple reflex. Moths' escape behavior is modulated by a variety of cues, especially… 

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