Simon Newcomb, William Harkness and the Nineteenth-Century American Transit of Venus Expeditions

  title={Simon Newcomb, William Harkness and the Nineteenth-Century American Transit of Venus Expeditions},
  author={S. Dick and Wayne Orchiston and T. Love},
  journal={Journal for the History of Astronomy},
  pages={221 - 255}
Grâce a l'observatoire de l'armee navale americaine, Newcomb (S.) et Harkness (W.) ont pu observe le passage de la planete Venus sur le disque solaire au XIX e siecle 
Popular Astronomy and the Transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882
After the Civil War the United States enjoyed some decades of peace, industrial growth and relative prosperity. Though still primarily an agrarian nation, availability of jobs in the new industries
The 1874 and 1882 Transits of Venus: An Overview
Because of its fortuitous location, New Zealand hosted overseas expeditions, various local government-funded observing teams and a plethora of dedicated amateur astronomers intent on observing the
A Noble Triumph—Surpassed: The 1874 Transit
On the eve of the 1874 transit of Venus, an educated person, looking back to the last such event in 1769, might well conclude that the intervening 105 years had seen greater changes to the world than
The Grange, Tasmania: survival of a unique suite of 1874 transit of Venus relics
One of the two US expeditions in Australia for the 1874 transit of Venus was based in Campbell Town, Tasmania. While the transit was observed from this site and some of the photographs taken were
The Thames Observatories of John Grigg
In the course of a thirty year ‘career’ as an amateur astronomer John Grigg constructed two different observatories in Thames, and installed a small Wray refractor and a transit telescope in these.
The 1874 transit of Venus: New Zealand's first foray into international astronomy
The nineteenth century transits of Venus provided astronomers with the opportunity to use these rare events to calculate the solar parallax, and New Zealand played a vital role. Apart from activities
Stephen Carkeek, the Wellington Time Ball, and New Zealand’s Oldest Surviving Observatory
Stephen Carkeek, as the Controller of Customs in Wellington, played a key role in the founding of New Zealand’s first professional observatory, the Colonial Observatory on the Wellington waterfront.
Highlighting our international astronomical heritage: Tasmanian relics of the 1874 transit of Venus
Through the presence of two 1874 American transit of Venus stations, Tasmania played a key role in determining a value for the astronomical unit. But what makes these two stations even more important
James Cook's 1769 transit of Venus expedition to Tahiti
  • W. Orchiston
  • Geography
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2004
After the failure of the 1761 transit to provide a reliable value for the astronomical unit, the focus shifted to the 1769 event, and Britain mounted an ambitious program, with overseas observing
Refining the Astronomical Unit: Queenstown and the 1874 Transit of Venus
The 1874 transit of Venus was regarded as a major event which promised to produce an improved value for the solar parallax, and hence the Astronomical Unit. As a result, the United States dispatched


Astrophysics and twentieth-century astronomy to 1950
Foreword Preface Acknowledgements Part I. The Birth of Astrophysics and Other Late Nineteenth-Century Trends (c.1850-c.1920) 1. The origins of astrophysics A. J. Meadows 2. The impact of photography
On the mode of observing the coming transits of Venus
  • S. Newcomb
  • Geology
    American Journal of Science and Arts
  • 1870
Transits of Venus over the disk of the sun have more than any other celestial phenomena occupied the attention and called forth the energies of the astronomical world. In the last century they
The Eros Parallax, 1930–31
The solar parallax is now derived indirectly but with great accuracy from radar observations of the planets, and is believed to be rr (0) = 8"'794148 with an error of perhaps ± 7 in the last place.'
On the Magnitude of the Solar System
The scientific border-land is the boundaries between two countries that are wholly a human conception of which nature takes no cognisance, and so it is with the scientificborder-land to which I propose to invite your attention this evening.
On the New Mexico party see Vincent Ponko, Jr, "19th century science in New Mexico: The 1882 transit of Venus observations at Cerro Roblero
  • South African journal of science,
  • 1994
Dictionary ofscientific biography, x (New York, 1974), 543, and Joseph Ashbrook, The astronomical scrapbook
  • 1984
The Eros parallax
  • Journal for the history of astronomy, xiii
  • 1982
Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters
  • Dictionary ofscientific biography, x
  • 1974