Similar mode of action of pyrethroids and DDT on sodium channel gating in myelinated nerves

@article{Vijverberg1982SimilarMO,
  title={Similar mode of action of pyrethroids and DDT on sodium channel gating in myelinated nerves},
  author={Henk P. M. Vijverberg and Johan M. van der Zalm and Joep van den Bercken},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1982},
  volume={295},
  pages={601-603}
}
Synthetic pyrethroids are a new class of highly active insecticides with great potential for practical application1. They are generally recognized as neurotoxicants that act directly on excitable membranes2,3. Previous studies have shown that the effect of the pyrethroid allethrin closely resembles that of the classical insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) in the peripheral nervous system of Xenopus laevis4,5. Both compounds induce intense repetitive activity in sense organs and… 
Neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides.
TLDR
Evidence is provided that pyrethroids can alter neuronal excitability through an action on voltage-sensitive channels other than the sodium channel, which is likely to be the principal site of pyrethroid action.
The Role of Ion Channels in Insecticide Action
TLDR
The high potency of pyrethroids is explicable by a profound amplification of toxic action from channel modification to repetitive discharges, and the voltage-activated calcium channels do not appear to play any significant role in pyrethroid toxicity.
Recent studies on the effects of DDT and pyrethroid insecticides on nervous activity in cockroaches
TLDR
The results suggest that the insecticide molecules diffused rapidly through the cuticle, were concentrated in the haemolymph, and eventually reached the central nervous system, where they inhibited nerve activity.
Neuronal ion channels as the target sites of insecticides.
TLDR
It appears that the sodium channel and the GABA system merit continuing efforts for development of newer and better insecticides.
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THE FUTURE OF PYRETHROIDS IN INSECT CONTROL
The more stable synthetic pyrethroids, the main subject of this review, are based on the earlier natural and synthetic pyrethroids, but differ so markedly from them in properties and activity as to
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