Similar Functions of Uric Acid and Ascorbate in Man ?

  title={Similar Functions of Uric Acid and Ascorbate in Man ?},
  author={Peter H. Proctor},
POINTING out the structural similarity between uric acid and the stimulant purines caffeine and theophylline, Orowan1 first proposed that the emergence of intelligence in the primate line might arise from a single evolutionary event, the loss of the enzyme uricase, with the result that uric acid became the end product of purine metabolism. The only non-primate mammalian strain whose final purine metabolite is uric acid is the Dalmatian dog. 

Conservation of vitamin C by uric acid in blood.

Uric acid protection of nucleobases from ozone-induced degradation.

Uric acid: neuroprotective or neurotoxic?

In addition to being an important human antioxidant, urate mediates radical oxidations and likely, oxidative-stress–related disease in a manner similar to homocysteine, 2,3 transition-series metals,2,3 etc.

Lessons from comparative physiology: could uric acid represent a physiologic alarm signal gone awry in western society?

This paper suggests that the mutations in ascorbate synthesis and uricase that characterized early primate evolution were likely in response to the need to stimulate the foraging “survival” response and might have inadvertently had a role in accelerating the development of bipedal locomotion and intellectual development.

Hyperuricemia-Related Diseases and Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) Inhibitors: An Overview

This review discusses the mechanism of uric acid homeostasis and alterations, updated prevalence, therapeutic outcomes, and molecular pathophysiology of hyperuricemia-related diseases, and summarize current discoveries in the development of new XOR inhibitors.

The role of uric acid in protection against peroxynitrite-mediated pathology.

It is hypothesized that higher uric acid levels in hominoids evolved to protect against the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced tissue damage, blood-CNS barrier permeability changes, and CNS inflammation.

Are either or both hyperuricemia and xanthine oxidase directly toxic to the vasculature? A critical appraisal.

Controversy remains as to which, if any, of these effects are of clinical relevance in development and complications of human vascular diseases in gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia, and it appears critical to resolve the putative toxic roles of UA and XO in the human arterial circulation.



Origin of Man

OROWAN1 suggests that the high uric acid concentration in the blood of human beings and anthropoids, as compared with other mammals, may be a cause of their intellectual development. He holds that

The Origin of Man

The Darwin–Mendel–De Vries theory of evolution provides a general frame for understanding the emergence of man, but it leaves open crucial questions of detail about why man and the higher apes so strikingly exceeded other animals in intellectual development.