Silence Is Not Golden

  title={Silence Is Not Golden},
  author={Alexandru Cuc and Jonathan Koppel and William Hirst},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={727 - 733}
The present research explored the effect of selective remembering and the resulting “silences” on memory. In particular, we examined whether unmentioned information is more likely to be forgotten by a listener if related information is recollected by the speaker than if related information is not recollected by the speaker. In a modification of the retrieval-induced forgetting paradigm, pairs of individuals studied material, but in the practice phase, only one member of each pair selectively… 

Figures from this paper

Social identity and socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting: The effects of group membership.
It is asked here whether such concurrent retrieval is a function of group membership, thereby underscoring the connection between a basic mnemonic mechanism-retrieval-induced forgetting-and a social function of communicative interaction-building a shared representation.
Retrieval-induced forgetting in a social context: Do the same mechanisms underlie forgetting in speakers and listeners?
Findings are consistent with the view that inhibition and blocking contribute to both WI-R IF and SS-RIF, but that the contribution of inhibition is reduced in listeners relative to speakers.
Forgetting our personal past: socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting of autobiographical memories.
In all 4 experiments, WI-RIF and SS-R IF are found regardless of the emotional valence or individual ownership of the memories, which discusses the role of conversational silence in shaping both personal and shared pasts.
Socially induced false memories in the absence of misinformation
Ample evidence shows that post-encoding misinformation from others can induce false memories. Here, we demonstrate in two experiments a new, tacit form of socially generated false memories, resulting
Forgetting in Social Chains: The Impact of Cognition on Information Propagation
Listening to a speaker selectively practicing previously encoded information leads to better memory for the practiced information, but at the same time results in induced forgetting of related
The Testing Effect in a Social Setting: Does Retrieval Practice Benefit a Listener?
The results indicate that memory retrieval is not necessarily as beneficial for listeners as for speakers, and the practice of teachers asking questions in class will not yield a positive effect unless special measures are taken to insure students’ effortful covert retrieval.
Does a Sense of Social Presence During Conversation Affect Student's Shared Memory? Evidence From SS-RIF Paradigm
The results indicate that social presence may not be associated with SS-RIF, and public silence affects the formation of collective memory regardless of the face-to-face presence of others, and thus physical presence is not necessary to induce SS- RIF.
Toward a Science of Silence
Recent empirical research on memory clearly has a bearing on a topic of such general interest as silence, as three factors are employed to classify silence into different types: whether a silence is accompanied by covert remembering, whether the silence is intentional or unintentional, and whether the silenced memory is related or unrelated to the memories emerging in a conversation.


Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory.
A critical role for suppression in models of retrieval inhibition and a retrieval-induced forgetting that implicate the retrieval process itself in everyday forgetting are suggested.
Integration as a general boundary condition on retrieval-induced forgetting
When people form connections between several memories that share a common retrieval cue, the tendency for those memories to interfere with one another during later retrieval attempts is often
Biased Retellings of Events Yield Biased Memories
Biased memory is a consequence of the reorganizing schema guiding the retelling perspective, in addition to the effects of rehearsing specific information in retelling.
The Generation Effect: Delineation of a Phenomenon
Five experiments are reported comparing memory for words that were generated by the subjects themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in
Explorations in the social contagion of memory
The data support the claim that false memories may be transmitted between people and reveal critical factors that modulate the social contagion of memories.
A limit on retrieval-induced forgetting.
Although the authors demonstrated a retrieval- induced forgetting effect using a category-cued recall task, they failed to show retrieval-induced forgetting on several different memory tests that used item-specific cues.
Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control
It is shown that executive control processes not uniquely tied to trauma may provide a viable model for repression, and that this cognitive act has enduring consequences for the rejected memories.
How what we tell becomes what we know: Listener effects on speakers’ long‐term memory for events
Telling others about past events can be viewed as rehearsing one's memory for a set of events, and a recollection on one occasion might exert long‐term influences on event memory. Because variations
On the formation of collective memories: The role of a dominant narrator
It is argued that the formation of a collective memory through conversation is not inevitable but is limited by cognitive factors, such as conditions for social contagion, and by situational factors,such as the presence of a narrator.
Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory.
This review of the field ends with a brief discussion of the newer work involving misinformation that has explored the processes by which people come to believe falsely that they experienced rich complex events that never, in fact, occurred.