Significant uncertainty is common in nature

  title={Significant uncertainty is common in nature},
  author={Donald R. Griffin and Robert Russell Hampton},
In animals’ natural lives, uncertainty is normal; and certainty, exceptional. Evaluating ambiguous information is essential for survival: Does what is seen, heard, or smelled mean danger? Does that gesture mean aggression or fear? Is he confident or uncertain? If they are conscious of anything, the content of animals’ awareness probably includes crucial uncertainties, both their own and those of others. Our scientific thinking about uncertainty monitoring and metacognition in animals tends to… CONTINUE READING