Significant contribution of Archaea to extant biomass in marine subsurface sediments

  title={Significant contribution of Archaea to extant biomass in marine subsurface sediments},
  author={Julius S. Lipp and Yuki Morono and Fumio Inagaki and Kai‐Uwe Hinrichs},
Deep drilling into the marine sea floor has uncovered a vast sedimentary ecosystem of microbial cells. Extrapolation of direct counts of stained microbial cells to the total volume of habitable marine subsurface sediments suggests that between 56 Pg (ref. 1) and 303 Pg (ref. 3) of cellular carbon could be stored in this largely unexplored habitat. From recent studies using various culture-independent techniques, no clear picture has yet emerged as to whether Archaea or Bacteria are more… 
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Marine subsurface eukaryotes: the fungal majority.
Fungal sequences are the most consistently detected eukaryotes in the marine sedimentary subsurface; further, some species may be specifically adapted to the deep subsurfaced and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients.
Bacterial dominance in subseafloor sediments characterized by methane hydrates.
Compared with other seafloor settings that contain biogenic methane, this deep subseafloor habitat has a unique microbial community and the low cell abundance detected can help to refine global subseftloor microbial abundance.
Abundance and distribution of Archaea in the subseafloor sedimentary biosphere
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Deep Sequencing of Subseafloor Eukaryotic rRNA Reveals Active Fungi across Marine Subsurface Provinces
Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface.
Shifts among Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea define the vertical organization of a lake sediment
The dominance of Archaea in deeper layers confirms earlier findings from marine systems and establishes freshwater sediments as a potential low-energy environment, similar to deep sea sediments.
High virus-to-cell ratios indicate ongoing production of viruses in deep subsurface sediments
Even in the oldest sediments, microbial communities are capable of maintaining viral populations, indicating an ongoing viral production and thus, viruses provide an independent indicator for microbial life in the marine deep biosphere.
Benthic archaea as potential sources of tetraether membrane lipids in sediments across an oxygen minimum zone
Comparison of archaeal diversity and intact polar lipid (IPL) composition in both surface and subsurface sediments recovered within, just below, and well below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea indicates the presence of an active in situ benthic population, which coincided with a high relative abundance of hexose phosphohexose crenarchaeol, a specific biomarker for living Thaumarchaeota.


Prokaryotic cells of the deep sub-seafloor biosphere identified as living bacteria
It is shown that a large fraction of the sub-seafloor prokaryotes is alive, even in very old (16 million yr) and deep (> 400 m) sediments.
Uncultured archaea in deep marine subsurface sediments: have we caught them all?
Deep marine subsurface sediments represent a novel archaeal biosphere with unknown physiology; the sedimentary subsurface harbors numerous novel phylogenetic lineages of archaea that are at present
Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean
A year-long study of the abundance of two specific archaeal groups (pelagic euryarchaeota and pelagic crenarchAEota) in one of the ocean's largest habitats suggests that most pelagic deep-sea microorganisms are metabolically active and the results suggest that the global oceans harbour approximately 1.3 × 1028Archaeal cells, and 3.1‬×‬10 28 bacterial cells.
Deep bacterial biosphere in Pacific Ocean sediments
ALTHOUGH around 70% of the Earth's surface is marine, little is known about the microbiology of underlying sediments, which can be more than a kilometre deep1. Selective degradation of organic matter
We report results from the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in sediments from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1257 and 1258. IPLs, constituting the cell membranes of living organisms, were
Biogeographical distribution and diversity of microbes in methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments on the Pacific Ocean Margin.
Results from cluster and principal component analyses, which include previously reported data from the West and East Pacific Margins, suggest that, for these locations in the Pacific Ocean, prokaryotic communities from methane hydrate-bearing sediment cores are distinct from those in Hydrate-free cores.
Microbial Communities of Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments: Molecular and Cultivation Surveys
It is shown that microbial communities of deep marine sediments harbor members of distinct, uncultured bacterial and archaeal lineages, in addition to Gram-positive bacteria and Proteobacteria that are detected by cultivation surveys, suggesting a continuous deep subsurface and hydrothermal biosphere with shared microbiota.
Recent studies on bacterial populations and processes in subseafloor sediments: A review
Subsurface bacteria also occur in hydrothermal sediments with large temperature gradients (up to 12 °C/m) and with population numbers similar to non-hydrothermal sites at temperatures from
Organic Carbon Degradation in Arctic Marine Sediments, Svalbard: A Comparison of Initial and Terminal Steps
Degradation of marine organic matter under anoxic conditions involves microbial communities working in concert to remineralize complex substrates to CO 2 . In order to investigate the coupling
Microbial Communities Associated with Geological Horizons in Coastal Subseafloor Sediments from the Sea of Okhotsk
The porous ash layers of the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk appear to be discrete microbial habitats within the coastal subseafloor clay sediment, which are capable of harboring microbial communities that are very distinct from the communities in the more abundant pelagic clays.