# Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.

@article{Giustina2015SignificantLoopholeFreeTO, title={Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.}, author={Marissa Giustina and Marijn A M Versteegh and S{\"o}ren Wengerowsky and Johannes Handsteiner and Armin Hochrainer and Kevin Phelan and Fabian Steinlechner and Johannes Kofler and Jan-{\AA}ke Larsson and Carlos Abell{\'a}n and Waldimar Amaya and Valerio Pruneri and Morgan W. Mitchell and J{\"o}rn Beyer and Thomas Gerrits and Adriana E Lita and Lynden K. Shalm and Sae Woo Nam and Thomas Scheidl and Rupert Ursin and Bernhard Wittmann and Anton Zeilinger}, journal={Physical review letters}, year={2015}, volume={115 25}, pages={ 250401 } }

Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we…

## 820 Citations

A significant-loophole-free test of Bell's theorem with entangled photons

- Mathematics, EngineeringSecurity + Defence
- 2017

John Bell’s theorem of 1964 states that local elements of physical reality, existing independent of measurement, are inconsistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics (Bell, J. S. (1964),…

A Rigorous Test of Bell’s Inequality and Quantum Teleportation Employing Single Atoms

- Physics
- 2018

In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen pointed at contradictions between quantum mechanics and classical theories which obey the principles of realism (physical properties exist without observation)…

Event-Ready Bell Test Using Entangled Atoms Simultaneously Closing Detection and Locality Loopholes.

- Mathematics, PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2017

A statistically significant, event-ready Bell test based on combining heralded entanglement of atoms separated by 398 m with fast and efficient measurements of the atomic spin states closing essential loopholes to refute the hypothesis of local realism with a significance level P<2.57×10^{-9}.

Quantum Foundations with Astronomical Photons

- Physics
- 2017

Bell’s inequalities impose an upper limit on correlations between measurements of two-photon states under the assumption that the photons play by a set of local rules rather than by quantum…

Comment on "Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons"

- Mathematics, Physics
- 2016

In a recent article Giustina et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)] report on an advanced Bell experiment, simultaneously closing loopholes for local hidden-variable theories. The authors claim…

Proposal to Test a Transient Deviation from Quantum Mechanics’ Predictions for Bell’s Experiment

- MedicineEntropy
- 2021

It is hypothesized that the high quantum correlations develop only after a time longer than L/c has elapsed, where L is the spread of the entangled state and c is the velocity of light, and a simple hidden variables model following this hypothesis is described.

Simulation of the Bell inequality violation based on quantum steering concept

- MedicineScientific reports
- 2021

By use of a model of polarizers that obeys the Malus’ law and quantum steering concept, i.e. superluminal influence of the states of entangled pairs to each other, simulation of phenomena is presented and the result completely agrees with prediction of quantum mechanics.

Optomechanical Bell Test.

- Medicine, PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2018

Here, light-matter entanglement is created between the vibrational motion of two silicon optomechanical oscillators, each comprising approx.

Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars.

- Medicine, PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2017

In tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality, pushing back by ∼600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.

Tackling Loopholes in Experimental Tests of Bell's Inequality

- Mathematics, Physics
- 2020

Bell's inequality sets a strict threshold for how strongly correlated the outcomes of measurements on two or more particles can be, if the outcomes of each measurement are independent of actions…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 82 REFERENCES

Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres

- Physics, MedicineNature
- 2015

The data imply statistically significant rejection of the local-realist null hypothesis and could be used for testing less-conventional theories, and for implementing device-independent quantum-secure communication and randomness certification.

Experimental violation of a Bell's inequality with efficient detection

- Physics, MedicineNature
- 2001

Here, correlations in the classical properties of massive entangled particles (9Be+ ions): these correlations violate a form of Bell's inequality, and the high detection efficiency of the apparatus eliminates the so-called ‘detection’ loophole.

Bell-inequality violation with entangled photons, free of the coincidence-time loophole

- Physics
- 2014

In a local realist model, physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Proper experimental violation…

Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption

- Physics, BiologyNature
- 2013

This experiment makes the photon the first physical system for which each of the main loopholes has been closed, albeit in different experiments, and uses the Eberhard form of Bell’s inequality, which allows a lower collection efficiency than other forms.

Violation of local realism with freedom of choice

- Economics, MathematicsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 2010

This paper presents an experiment that violates Bell’s inequality while simultaneously closing the locality loophole and addressing the freedom-of-choice loophole, also closing the latter within a reasonable set of assumptions.

Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications.

- Medicine, PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2013

A source of entangled photons is presented that violates a Bell inequality free of the "fair-sampling" assumption, and is used to generate "device-independent" private quantum random numbers at rates over 4 orders of magnitude beyond previous experiments.

Loopholes in Bell inequality tests of local realism

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 2014

Bell inequalities are intended to show that local realist theories cannot describe the world. A local realist theory is one where physical properties are defined prior to and independent of…

Violation of Bell's inequality in Josephson phase qubits

- Physics, MedicineNature
- 2009

This experiment uses a pair of Josephson phase qubits acting as spin-1/2 particles, and shows that the qubits can be entangled and measured so as to violate the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) version of the Bell inequality.

Testing Bell's inequality with cosmic photons: closing the setting-independence loophole.

- Physics, MedicinePhysical review letters
- 2014

By setting the detectors using pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background, observed violations of Bell's inequality would require any such coordination to have existed for billions of years-an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude.

Time-resolved measurement of Bell inequalities and the coincidence loophole

- Physics
- 2012

We report an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment with a pulsed source of entangled pairs of photons, recording the time of arrival of the pulses and of the detection of each single photon. This…