Signaling pathways during maintenance and definitive endoderm differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

  title={Signaling pathways during maintenance and definitive endoderm differentiation of embryonic stem cells.},
  author={Lina Sui and Luc Bouwens and Josu{\'e} Kunjom Mfopou},
  journal={The International journal of developmental biology},
  volume={57 1},
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to be used as unlimited resources for tissue replacement therapy, thereby compensating for organ donor shortage. To reach this goal, the molecular principles governing early differentiation events in the developing embryo need to be addressed, understood and properly implemented in vitro. Studies carried out in several vertebrate models have established that Nodal/Activin A, BMP, WNT and FGF signaling pathways regulate early embryo development and… 

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