Signaling Pathways in Cancer and Embryonic Stem Cells

  title={Signaling Pathways in Cancer and Embryonic Stem Cells},
  author={Oliver Dreesen and Ali H. Brivanlou},
  journal={Stem Cell Reviews},
Cancer cells have the ability to divide indefinitely and spread to different parts of the body during metastasis. [] Key Method We focus on their role in stem cell self-renewal and development and identify key molecules, whose aberrant expression has been associated with malignant phenotypes. We conclude by presenting a map of the signaling networks involved in cancer and embryonic stem cells.

Cancer stem cell signaling pathways

CSCs are a relatively rare population of cancer cells capable of self-renewal, differentiation, and generation of serially transplantable heterogeneous tumors of several types of cancer.

The New Model of Carcinogenesis: The Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis

The new defining model for carcinogenesis, the "cancer stem cell theory" was put forward since 1997, when John Dick and coworkers started a series of pioneering investigations to understand whether the functional hierarchy observed in normal hematopoiesis was conserved in blood tumors.

The role of signaling pathways in derivation and maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cells

To understand the molecular effects of R2i culture condition on enhancing the efficiency of generating the mouse ES cells, the assessment of key pluripotency and differentiation gene expressions as well as the epigenetic changes within the ES cell derivation process seems to be essential.

Influence of the Embryonic Microenvironment on Tumor Progression

Stem cell associated proteins and microen environments that sustain and promote cellular plasticity in embryonic and neoplastic populations are described and evidence that embryonic microenvironments may be capitalized upon to rebalance cancer cells toward a benign well-differentiated phenotype is reviewed.

Review on the molecular signaling pathways involved in controlling cancer stem cells and treatment

It seems that very important signaling pathways have been disturbed in cancers and excessive or abnormal signaling through these pathways can contribute to the survival of stem cells.

TGFβ Family Signaling Pathways in Pluripotent and Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells’ Fate Decisions: Balancing Between Self-Renewal, Differentiation, and Cancer

This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of TGFβ family functions in naїve and primed pluripotent stem cells and discusses how these pathways are involved in perturbations in the signaling network of malignant teratocarcinoma stem cells with impaired differentiation potential.

Stem cells in gastrointestinal cancers: a matter of choice in cell fate determination

Recent progress in the studies of stomach and intestinal cancer stem cells is discussed, while focusing on the complex molecular pathways underlying stem cell transformation and gastrointestinal tumorigenesis.

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New findings that implicate DEK as a regulator of stem and progenitor cell qualities, potentially through its unusual functions in the regulation of local or global chromatin organization are focused on.

Regulation of stem cell plasticity: mechanisms and relevance to tissue biology and cancer.

The key factors and their interplay that is needed to regain a stem cell stage with a particular emphasis put on the impact of cell cycle regulation are discussed.



A molecular basis for human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

Recent efforts to assess the molecular signature of pluripotent HESCs are discussed and work demonstrating a set of genes, including representatives from the FGF, TGFβ, and Wnt signaling pathways, that consistently mark the undifferentiated state is highlighted.

Notch Promotes Neural Lineage Entry by Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells

An unexpected and decisive role for Notch in ES cell fate determination is defined, which is likely to be a key factor in taking command of ES cell lineage choice.

Role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.

The PI3K pathway utilizes multiple downstream effectors including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), which is shown to be essential for proliferation in mouse ES cells and early embryos.

Self-renewal and solid tumor stem cells

Growing evidence suggests that pathways that regulate the self-renewal of normal stem cells are deregulated in cancer stem cells resulting in the continuous expansion of self-Renewing cancer cells and tumor formation, which suggests that agents that target the defective self- renewal pathways in cancer cells might lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of these diseases.

Notch Signaling Is Inactive but Inducible in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

The studies suggest that NOTCH signaling is not required in human embryonic differentiation until the formation of extraembryonic, germ layer, or tissue‐specific stem cells and progenitors.

Maintenance of pluripotency in human and mouse embryonic stem cells through activation of Wnt signaling by a pharmacological GSK-3-specific inhibitor

It is shown that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway is sufficient to maintain self-renewal of both HESCs and MESCs, and the use of GSK-3-specific inhibitors such as BIO may have practical applications in regenerative medicine.

Caught up in a Wnt storm: Wnt signaling in cancer.

The multifaceted role of Notch in cancer.

Bone morphogenetic proteins inhibit the tumorigenic potential of human brain tumour-initiating cells

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Cancer stem cells: lessons from leukemia.