Sickle Cell Trait Screening of Collegiate Athletes: Ethical Reasons for Program Reform

@article{Ferrari2015SickleCT,
  title={Sickle Cell Trait Screening of Collegiate Athletes: Ethical Reasons for Program Reform},
  author={Rosalie Ferrari and Lisa S. Parker and Robin E. Grubs and Lakshmanan Krishnamurti},
  journal={Journal of Genetic Counseling},
  year={2015},
  volume={24},
  pages={873-877}
}
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) requires all student-athletes have their sickle cell trait (SCT) status confirmed prior to athletic participation. The NCAA approved the screening program in 2010 for institutions participating in Division I athletics and extended it in subsequent years to institutions at Division II and III levels. Ethical concerns about the controversial policy focus on its mandatory nature and potential impact on student-athletes, particularly through… 

Perspectives and Practices of Athletic Trainers and Team Physicians Implementing the 2010 NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Screening Policy

TLDR
Athletic staff found the policy valuable, but felt it needs clarity and standardization, and schools varied in provision of genetic counseling, offering the waiver, SCT tests administered, and other aspects.

Screening Saviors?: The Politics of Care, College Sports, and Screening Athletes for Sickle Cell Trait

  • M. Mcdonald
  • Education
    Sports, Society, and Technology
  • 2019
Since 2013 the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has required that all athletes be tested for sickle cell trait presumably to ensure the care, health, and safety of student-athletes

Summit on Exercise Collapse Associated with Sickle Cell Trait: Finding the “Way Ahead”

TLDR
Current service policies on SCT screening are reviewed, draft procedural instructions for executing current policy on S CT within the Department of Defense are developed, and draft clinical practice guidelines for management of ECAST are developed.

The role of healthcare providers in using the knowledge of sickle cell trait to mitigate health problems in African American Clients

TLDR
Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational intervention on providers’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding sickle cell trait found that this effort must be sustained through continuous education within the institution to increase awareness towards sicklecell trait among healthcare providers especially for new hires.

Student-Athletes’ Views on APOE Genotyping for Increased Risk of Poor Recovery after a Traumatic Brain Injury

TLDR
Student-athletes were open to apolipoprotein E genotyping and willing to share test results with their parents, coaches and physicians, and they did not anticipate that test results would impact their behavior or ability to play.

Ethics, Genetic Technologies and Equine Sports: The Prospect of Regulation of a Modified Therapeutic Use Exemption Policy

TLDR
It is argued that regulatory institutions should urgently collaborate to develop cross-sport international regulations for the use of gene editing, including obligatory reporting of data about the health and welfare of genetically edited horses.

Twelve cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis in college football players from the same institution over a 23-year span: a descriptive study

TLDR
Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication of strenuous physical activity that can threaten renal function and carries a good prognosis when recognized early and treated adequately.

Reproductive intentions in mothers of young children with sickle cell disease

TLDR
This work sought to understand family planning intentions of parents of young children with SCD including the awareness of three reproductive options (adoption, in vitro fertilization with egg/sperm donation, IVF with preimplantation genetic testing] to decrease the risk of having a child withSCD.

Incidence, demographic characteristics, and geographic distribution of sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia births in Michigan, 1997–2014

This study describes the incidence, demographic characteristics, and geographic distribution of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and sickle cell trait births in Michigan.

The carrier state for sickle cell disease is not completely harmless

TLDR
While some of the associations historically attributed to SCT are unfounded, recent meta-analyses found high-quality evidence that SCT is indeed a risk factor for a handful of complications common to SCD.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES

Testing of Collegiate Athletes for Sickle Cell Trait: What We, as Genetic Counselors Should Know

TLDR
The origins of the NCAA recommendations are addressed, the importance of proceeding with care is stressed, and a discussion in the genetic counseling community as to what, if any, should the role be is sought.

Athletes’ Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association–Mandated Sickle Cell Trait Screening: Insight for Academic Institutions and College Health Professionals

TLDR
Examining race- and gender-related differences in athletes’ perceptions regarding risk of having SCT and concern about loss of playing time found that athletes would have a high level of concern if found to carry the SCT found that African Americans were 9.07 times more likely than Caucasians to perceive risk of Having SCT.

Screening student athletes for sickle cell trait--a social and clinical experiment.

On April 13, 2010, the legislative council for Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) approved mandatory testing for sickle cell carrier status (sickle cell trait) for all

Sickle cell trait testing and athletic participation: a solution in search of a problem?

  • A. Thompson
  • Medicine
    Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • 2013
TLDR
The epidemiology, genetics, and clinical studies of sicklecell trait are discussed; the implications of current policies regarding sickle cell trait screening and interventions for the student athlete are reviewed; and additional areas where more information is needed are examined.

A policy impact analysis of the mandatory NCAA sickle cell trait screening program.

TLDR
It is estimated that over 2,000 NCAA Division I student-athletes with SCT will be identified under this screening policy and that, without intervention, about sevenNCAA Division IStudent-athlete would die suddenly as a complication of SCT over a 10-year period.

Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine

TLDR
The aims of this article are to explicate the ethics of sports medicine, highlight the ethical issues, and provide some strategies and suggestions for ethical decision making.

Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes

TLDR
The purpose of this study was to more precisely estimate the incidence of SCD in National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes and assess the accuracy of traditional methods for collecting data on SCD.

Public health implications of sickle cell trait: a report of the CDC meeting.

Psychological Aspects of Genetic Counseling. IX. Teaching and Counseling

  • S. Kessler
  • Education
    Journal of Genetic Counseling
  • 2004
TLDR
Greater attention needs to be given by training programs to the pedagogical and counseling skills genetic counselors may need in their professional work.

Genetic Screening: Triumphs, Problems, and Controversies

TLDR
This paper characterizes the various types of programs and discusses some of the scientific, ethical, social, and economic issues that arise in evaluating any genetic screening program.