Sicilian Castles and Coastal Towers

@article{Kirk2017SicilianCA,
  title={Sicilian Castles and Coastal Towers},
  author={Scott Kirk},
  journal={Open Archaeology},
  year={2017},
  volume={3},
  pages={313 - 338}
}
  • Scott Kirk
  • Published 27 November 2017
  • History
  • Open Archaeology
Abstract While much attention has been paid to the development of castles as the hallmark architectural symbol of the Middle Ages, less attention has been given to the changes in European defensive strategies that occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. It was at this time when the modern nations of Europe began to take form, as sea-based trade between distant nations took precedence over land-based trade routes. This paper examines how this transformation manifested in the defensive… 

Slavery, captivity and galley rowing in early modern Malta

Abstract For nearly 300 years, the Knights of St John forced a range of captives to labour on their galleys, with slave, convict and debtor oarsmen propelling the Knights’ navy in their crusade

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