Sibling tutoring and other explanations for intelligence discontinuities of only and last borns

  title={Sibling tutoring and other explanations for intelligence discontinuities of only and last borns},
  author={Toni Falbo},
  journal={Journal of population},
  • T. Falbo
  • Published 1978
  • Psychology
  • Journal of population
A critical review of the sibling-tutoring explanation for the intelli gence discontinuity of onlyand last-borns evaluates the evidence supporting this explanation and presents alternatives. Conceptualized within the confluence model, the alternative explanation offered for the intelligence discontinuity of only children is that they are more likely to come from single-parent homes. Age spacing is presented as the alternate explanation for the intelligence discontinuity of last borns. A… Expand
The intellectual achievement of only children.
The strong only-child advantage on tests of verbal ability together with the overall pattern of findings implicates parent-child interactions as responsible for the family size and birth order variations in intellectual achievement. Expand
A Tale of Two Variables: A Review of the Intellectual Consequences of Sibship Size and Birth Order
This paper critiques the literature on the relationship between sibling structure and academic abilities and achievement since Cicirelli’s (1978) earlier commentary on this topic. Assessed is theExpand
This paper explores the relationship between sibship structure and educational outcomes, in the context of theories of dilution of parental time. Special efforts are made to disentangle the effectsExpand
"Family Composition and Children's Educational Outcomes"
This paper explores the relationship between sibship structure and educational outcomes, in the context of theories of dilution of parental time. Special efforts are made to disentangle the effectsExpand
Academic achievement and teaching younger siblings
The idea that teaching younger siblings encourages the intellectual development of the older child is investigated. A self-report measure of teaching younger siblings is developed and tested forExpand
This paper explores the theoretical validity of the confluence model in explaining the effects of sibship size and birth order on intelligence. Using a nationally representative sample the effects ofExpand
Being an Only Child
While confluence theory is frequently supported by the data for both sexes, the corollary tutoring hypothesis is generally only validated for young women and the authors conjecture that this sex discrepancy may reflect a greater likelihood that the tutoring role within the family may be substantially affectively based, thus making it an activity that is more likely to be associated with female intrafamily role behavior. Expand
Family size and the quality of children
  • J. Blake
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Demography
  • 2011
Number of siblings is found to have an important detrimental impact on child quality—an impact compounded by the fact that, when couples are at a stage in life to make family-size decisions, most background factors are no longer readily manipulable. Expand
Family Size, Birth Order, and Educational Attainment
Abstract This paper examines the relationship between birth order and educational attainment measured at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23, with particular care taken to separate the effects of birth order fromExpand
Sex Differences in the Impact of the Number of Older and Younger Siblings on IQ Performance
The authors present evidence that reassesses a recent hypothesis put forth by Paulhus and Shaffer (1981), that females are less likely than males to show decrements in intellectual growth normallyExpand


Father absence and children's cognitive development.
  • M. Shinn
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological bulletin
  • 1978
The evidence suggests that financial hardship, high levels of anxiety, and, in particular, low levels of parent-child interaction are causes of poor performance among children in single-parent families; sex role identification does not play an important role. Expand
Family configuration and intelligence.
An attempt is made to show generally that variations in aggregate intelligence scores are closely associated with variations in patterns of family configuration and that these aggregate familyExpand
Intellectual development in family constellations with adopted and natural children: a test of the Zajonc and Markus model.
Although the model fits population data very well, it fails to account for intellectual patterns within families for whom both parent and child IQ data are available, and the discrepancy is discussed in terms of sources of variance within and between families that are undetected in average values for a population. Expand
Birth Order and Intellectual Development
A confluence model is developed that explains the effects of birth order and family size on intelligence. Intellectual development within the family context is conceived of as depending on theExpand
Birth Order, Family Configuration and Verbal Achievement.
Two samples of National Merit Scholarship participants test in 1962 and the entire population of almost 800000 participants tested in 1965 were examined. Consistent effects in all 3 groups wereExpand
The birth order puzzle.
The birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context and an orderly pattern of results emerges. Expand
Interaction between Young Siblings in the Context of Family Relationships
Most babies grow up in families. They thus develop their powers of social understanding and communication within a web of relationships between mother, father, siblings, grandparents, and friends.Expand
Father-absence effects in families of different sibling compositions.
In general, father absence has a depressive effect throughout, with the greatest effects during the early and middle years; boys without brothers are more affected than those with brothers, girls with a younger brotherMore affected than other girls, and only girls more affectedthan only boys. Expand
Father availability and academic performance among third-grade boys.
The degree of father availability on the academic performance of young school children, particularly boys, has been of interest to educators for some time. Unfortunately most of the published studiesExpand
The intelligence of twins. A comparative study of eleven-year-old twins
Summary This study is an outcome of the 1947 Scottish Mental Survey. In a Group Intelligence Test done by 70,805 eleven-year-old Scottish children, the average score of the twins was significantlyExpand