Sialic acid and neuraminidase activity were determined in the cortex of the remnant kidneys of six uninephrectomized rats. As controls served either the kidneys removed at operation or age-matched kidneys from eight sham operated rats. Six months after uninephrectomy the kidneys became hypertrophied and their mean weight was about 40% higher than age-matched kidneys. Blood urea and creatinine and protein levels in 24-hr urine collections were significantly higher in the experimental animals as compared to those of the same animals before nephrectomy and to sham operated rats, indicating a marked impairment of kidney function. The mean concentration of sialic acid in the cortex of hypertrophied kidneys was not statistically different from either that of the removed or that of the age-matched kidneys. Neuraminidase activity expressed as either per gram fresh tissue or per milligram protein, was not different in the removed and in the hypertrophied kidney. The activity, however, in the latter was significantly lower than in the age-matched kidneys. Whether this finding can be associated with the impairment of kidney function in rats 6 months after uninephrectomy remains to be studied.