Shrinking Binary and Planetary Orbits by Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction

@article{Fabrycky2007ShrinkingBA,
  title={Shrinking Binary and Planetary Orbits by Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction},
  author={Daniel C. Fabrycky and Scott Tremaine},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2007},
  volume={669},
  pages={1298 - 1315}
}
At least two arguments suggest that the orbits of a large fraction of binary stars and extrasolar planets shrank by 1-2 orders of magnitude after formation: (1) the physical radius of a star shrinks by a large factor from birth to the main sequence, yet many main-sequence stars have companions orbiting only a few stellar radii away, and (2) in current theories of planet formation, the region within ~0.1 AU of a protostar is too hot and rarefied for a Jupiter-mass planet to form, yet many "hot… 

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