Shoulder Injuries in the Overhead Throwing Athlete.

  title={Shoulder Injuries in the Overhead Throwing Athlete.},
  author={Ryan A. Mlynarek and Simon Lee and Asheesh Bedi},
  journal={Hand clinics},
  volume={33 1},
The overhead pitching motion is a coordinated sequence of movements that subjects the shoulder to extreme forces. The ultimate goal of this complex, dynamic activity is to generate high ball velocity and accuracy. In doing so, repetitive throwing can cause adaptive and pathologic changes in the thrower's shoulder. This article reviews the relevant shoulder anatomy, the kinetic chain, and throwing mechanics, as well as common shoulder injuries and surgical options for the treating orthopedic… CONTINUE READING