Shortening of paced QRS complex and clinical improvement following upgrading from apical right ventricular pacing to bifocal right ventricular or biventricular pacing in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation.


BACKGROUND Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) using biventricular pacing (BVP) has been shown to improve survival in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, BVP cannot be achieved in all patients because of technical problems. In such patients, bifocal right ventricular pacing (BFP) may be an alternative. AIM To analyse the relationship… (More)


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