Impact of long-term steroid therapy on epicardial and pericardial fat deposition: a cardiac MRI study
CONTEXT Low-dose GH (LGH) therapy has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity in GH-deficient adults; however, the mechanism is unclear. HYPOTHESIS Effects of LGH therapy on insulin sensitivity are mediated through changes in cortisol metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, 3-month study. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION Seventeen GH-deficient adults were randomized to receive either daily LGH or placebo injections. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, and months 1 and 3, whereas hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans, 24-hour cortisol production rates (CPRs), and sc abdominal fat biopsies were performed at baseline and month 3. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Clamp glucose infusion rate, intramyocellular, extramyocellular, and intrahepatic lipid content, 24-hour CPRs, adipocyte size, and adipocyte 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in adults with GH deficiency were evaluated. RESULTS At month 1, LGH did not alter fasting levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acid, adiponectin, total IGF-1, IGF-1 bioactivity, IGF-2, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2, or IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 molar ratio. At month 3, LGH increased clamp glucose infusion rates (P < .01) and IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 molar ratio (P < .05), but fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acid, adiponectin, IGF-1 bioactivity, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, 24-hour CPRs, adipocyte size, adipocyte 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, intrahepatic lipid, extramyocellular, or intramyocellular were unchanged. In the placebo group, all within-group parameters from months 1 and 3 compared with baseline were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS Short-term LGH therapy improves insulin sensitivity without inducing basal lipolysis and had no effect on cortisol metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation in GH-deficient adults. This may reflect an LGH-induced increase in IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 molar ratio exerting insulin-like effects through the abundant muscle IGF-1 receptors, but this hypothesis requires confirmation with further studies.