OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 (n-HA/PA66) intervertebral cage for lumbar interbody fusion in the patients with lower lumbar degenerative diseases. METHODS Between January and October 2011, 20 patients with lower lumbar degenerative diseases underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with n-HA/PA66 intervertebral cage. There were 8 males and 12 females, aged 22-80 years (mean, 51 years). The disease duration was 1 to 24 months (mean, 4 months). L4,5 fusion was performed in 8 cases, L5, S1 fusion in 9 cases, and L4-S1 fusion in 3 cases. Among 20 cases, 3 were diagnosed as having recurrent lumbar disc protrusion, 5 as having lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 9 as having lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, and 3 as having lumbar spinal stenosis. The intervertebral height and lordosis were measured on X-ray film to assess the surgical correction and postoperative sustain while osseous fusion was observed on 3-dimensional CT. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) and short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) scores were obtained to assess the status of clinical recovery. RESULTS All patients had incision healing by first intention. The pain and numb were relieved in varying degrees after operation. No cerebrospinal leakage, nerve root injury, or wound infection was occurred. All patients were followed up 6-9 months (mean, 7 months). No cage displacement or collapse was found. The intervertebral height and lordosis of single fusion segment were significantly improved at 3 days and 3, 6 months after operation when compared with those at preoperation (P < 0.01); there was no significant difference among each time point after operation (P > 0.05). The fusion rate was 74% at 3 months after operation and 96% at 6 months after operation, with an average of 4 months (range, 3-9 months) for interbody fusion. The ODI and SF-36 scores were significantly improved at 3 days and 6 months after operation when compared with the scores at preoperation (P < 0.01); there was no significant difference among each time point after operation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION The interbody fusion with n-HA/PA intervertebral cage is effective and safe to treat the lower lumbar degenerative diseases. The n-HA/PA66 intervertebral cage is an ideal device of interbody fusion with high fusion rate, low subsidence rate, and high transmission X-ray, but the long-term effectiveness need further observation.