Short-term and long-term histologic effects of castration and estrogen treatment on breast tissue of 14 male-to-female transsexuals in comparison with two chemically castrated men.

  title={Short-term and long-term histologic effects of castration and estrogen treatment on breast tissue of 14 male-to-female transsexuals in comparison with two chemically castrated men.},
  author={Robert C. J. Kanhai and J Joris Hage and Paul J. van Diest and Elisabeth Bloemena and J. Wiebe Mulder},
  journal={The American journal of surgical pathology},
  volume={24 1},
The histologic changes induced in the mammary gland of male-to-female transsexuals have not yet been reported in the literature. We studied the histologic changes induced by chemical and surgical castration and estrogen therapy in the breasts of 14 such patients, with particular reference to acinar and lobular formation. To objectify the influence of cross-sex treatment, the histologic findings were compared with those in two men treated hormonally for prostate cancer. The slight increase in… 

Breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals: use of breast imaging for detection.

Screening for breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals should be undertaken for those with additional risk factors (e.g., family history, BRCA2 mutation, Klinefelter syndrome) and should be available to those who desire screening, preferably in a clinical trial.

Breast cancer development in transsexual subjects receiving cross-sex hormone treatment.

Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of malignant breast development, in either MtF or FtM transsexual individuals.

A systematic review of antiandrogens and feminization in transgender women

It is unclear whether spironolactone's antagonism of the androgen receptor results in clinically meaningful differences in feminization, and further research with clinically meaningful endpoints is needed to optimize the use of antiandrogens in transgender women.

Male breast adenocarcinoma in a prostate cancer patient following prolonged anti-androgen monotherapy.

This case report illustrates that PrCa patients receiving anti-androgen monotherapy may be at risk of BrCa, in the event of the concomitant presence of other genetically-determined predisposing factors, and indicates the importance of exercising caution against indiscriminate and prolonged use of anti- androgens monotherapy in patients with risk factors for male BrCa.

Breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual patient with a BRCA2 mutation.

This is the first case of a BRCA2 mutation predisposing to breast cancer in a MtF transgender patient who developed breast cancer after 7 years of cross-sex hormonal therapy.

Roles of androgens in the development, growth, and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland

  • D. LiaoR. Dickson
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • 2002

Mammary Myofibroblastoma in a Transgender Patient on Feminizing Hormones: Literature Review and Case Report

The case of a 76-year-old transgender patient who developed an estrogen receptor-positive mammary myofibroblastoma after 13 months of treatment on feminizing hormones is presented, which is the first reported case of MFB occurring in a transgender individual.

The 3-layered Ductal Epithelium in Gynecomastia

For the first time, the 3-layered ductal epithelium in gynecomastia is described, which has a distinctive immunohistochemical profile and does not seem to be an obligate precursor lesion of male breast cancer.



An immunohistochemical study of the long‐term effects of androgen administration on female‐to‐male transsexual breast: A comparison with normal female breast and male breast showing gynaecomastia

Sections from mastectomy specimens of 29 female‐to‐male transsexuals who had prolonged androgen administration prior to surgery were examined using routine light microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques to study the distribution of breast‐associated antigens and receptors.

Mammogenesis in Transsexuals

Photographs of modest to significant breast development in male transsexuals illustrate the range of male mammary tissue response, not strictly dose related, to hormonal feminization by exogenous

Carcinoma of breast in trans-sexual individuals after surgical and hormonal interference with the primary and secondary sex characteristics.

It seems wholly reasonable to conclude that the development of the cancer was a side-effect of the feminizing operations, including mammoplasty and in one case the construction of a pro-vagina.


The histologic features in gynecomastia as described in numerous reports are very consistent and the absence of acinar structures in enlargements of the male mammary gland has been confirmed and emphasized.

Breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual. A case report.

The clinicopathological findings in a patient who developed breast carcinoma ten years after male-to-female sexual reassignment are reported, and the controversies relating to hormonal influences in the etiology of breast cancer in men are discussed.

Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men.

  • F. Nuttall
  • Medicine
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 1979
The data indicate that palpable gynecomastic is common in normal adult men and this high prevalence must be taken into consideration when attributingGynecomastia to a drug or disease state.

Medical Requirements and Consequences of Sex Reassignment Surgery

  • J. Hage
  • Medicine
    Medicine, science, and the law
  • 1995
Sex reassignment for M→F transsexuals may be completed in one operation, leading to acceptable cosmetic and functional results, provided the surgery and postoperative treatment are performed with a high degree of expertise.

Phyllodes tumor in a male patient with bilateral gynaecomastia induced by oestrogen therapy for prostatic carcinoma.

  • C. BartoliS. ZurridaC. Clemente
  • Medicine
    European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • 1991
The male mammary gland can be modified by oestrogen with a histological picture analogous to that of the female breast with a case of phyllodes tumor in a male patient following prolonged oestrogens therapy.

Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross‐sex hormones

Investigation of mortality and morbidity figures in a large group of transsexual subjects receiving cross‐sex hormone treatment finds that the optimum steroid hormone treatment regimes for transsexual subjects has not yet been established.

Serum oestradiol-17 beta, testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in males with breast cancer.

Serum oestradiol-17 β, testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in males with breast cancer are studied to find out whether these hormones act as a ‘silent’ or ‘noxious’ substance to promote breast cancer recurrence.