Adult height and risk of ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and premature death: a population based 36-year follow-up study
AIMS The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between short stature and coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a systematic search from MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, and All EBM Reviews as well as from a reference list of relevant articles. We used SPICO (Study design, Patient, Intervention, Control-intervention, Outcome) criteria. The methodological quality of studies was analysed by modified Borghoust criteria. From a total of 1907 articles, we selected 52 studies comprising population-based follow-up studies and patient cohorts followed after a CHD event, as well as case-control studies with height either as a continuous or categorical variable, totalling 3 012 747 individuals. The short ones were below 160.5 cm and tall ones over 173.9 cm on average. Among the shortest height category, the relative risks were 1.35 (95% CI 1.25-1.44) for all-cause mortality, 1.55 (1.37-1.74) for all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 1.49 (1.33-1.67) for CHD, and 1.52 (1.28-1.81) for myocardial infarction when compared with those within the highest height category. The mean relative risk was 1.46 (1.37-1.55). Short stature was associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both genders. CONCLUSION The relationship between short stature and CVD appears to be a real one. On the basis of comparison, adults within the shortest category had an approximately 50% higher risk of CHD morbidity and mortality than tall individuals.