Studies demonstrate the importance of metabolic resources in the regulation of reproduction and immune functions in seasonal breeders. In this regard, the restricted energy availability can be considered as an environmental variable that may act as a seasonal stressor and can lead to compromised immune functions. The present study explored the effect of photoperiodic variation in the regulation of immune function under metabolic stress condition. The T-cell-dependent immune response in a tropical seasonal breeder Funambulus pennanti was studied following the inhibition of cellular glucose utilization with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). 2-DG treatment resulted in the suppression of general (e.g., proliferative response of lymphocytes) and antigen-specific [anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin IgG titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity response] T-cell responses with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which was evident from the increased levels of plasma corticosterone. 2-DG administration increased the production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and decreased the autocrine T-cell growth factor IL-2. The immunocompromising effect of 2-DG administration was retarded in animals exposed to short photoperiods compared with the control and long photoperiod-exposed groups. This finding suggested that short photoperiodic conditions enhanced the resilience of the immune system, possibly by diverting metabolic resources from the reproductive organs toward the immune system. In addition, melatonin may have facilitated the energy "trade-off" between reproductive and immune mechanisms, thereby providing an advantage to the seasonal breeders for their survival during stressful environmental conditions.